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    Title: 少子高齢化と日本女性労働
    Other Titles: 少子高齡化與日本女性勞動
    A study of the activities of Japanese female employment under the influence of lower birth rates and aged society
    Authors: 黃巧;Huang, Chiao
    Contributors: 淡江大學亞洲研究所碩士在職專班
    小山直則;Koyama, Naonori
    Keywords: 產業結構;勞動率;M字型曲線;非正式雇用;機會費用;Industrial Structure;labor force participation rate;M-shape curve;Contingent work;opportunity cost;産業構造;労働力率;機会費用
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2012-06-21 06:27:24 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 近年,由於產業結構的改變,第三次產業亦即所謂的服務經濟的堀起,改變了職場的結構。相較於勞力密集的第一及第二次產業,無須特殊技能與經驗的第三次產業造就了許多適合女性工作的機會。
    與其他先進各國之女性勞動率全然迴異的走勢圖中發現;日本二五歲至三四歲年齡層之女性勞動率相對低落,因而呈現M字型曲線。雖然自九○年代起,此一下陷幅度有逐漸改善趨勢;但追究其原因與晚婚、不婚或結婚但不生育的女性人口增加有關。反觀,已婚且生育之女性勞動率卻未見有任何起色,因此為有效提高女性勞動率,如何協助兼顧家庭與工作的職業婦女就業為當務之急。
    在考慮提高生育與工作率之前提下;本論文提出兩項建議以為解決之道。其一為非正式員工(兼職、打工及未納入正式體制之員工)之雇用政策。其二為加速人民對工作與生活的意識改革。據本論文之研究顯示:目前,日本有百分之五十三的女性為非正式雇用員工,且有三成的十五至二十四歲年輕族群亦為非正式雇用之一員。在工作保障及收入兩者皆無法穩定的情況下;除了造成適婚男女的晚婚與不婚,使得生育率下降外,也由於機會成本較低之故,連帶地影響已婚女性於生兒育女後重返職場的誘因低落。因此,為了促進年輕人之結婚意願以及鼓勵走出家庭投入社會的婦女,在推動改善非正式雇用的政策上有其積極之必要性。
    另外,在由來已久的日本式經營體制下,「男主外、女主內」的意識型態已深植人心。此一觀念亦為提高婦女工作率的最大障礙。儘管各項保障女性工作及生育之政策如火如荼地展開,但歷經二十餘年卻未見起色!因此,如何將根深蒂固的觀念作修正,亦即跳出傳統之思維模式,進行新時代的工作意識改革是今後必需努力的目標。
    According to this study, at present, there are 53 % of female are contingent employees in Japan, moreover, 30 % of Japanese young adults between the age of 15 to 24 work as temporary employees. The uncertainties for obtaining job opportunities and unstable incomes lead to late marriages and increasing un- married young couples. Due to this situation, the decreasing birth rate has become a problem. Furthermore, low opportunity cost diminishes the willing to return to work place in married women. Thus, it is important to promote policies to improve the problem of unemployment for married women and to facilitate marriages for young couples in order to overcome the situation of low birth rate.
    In Japanese society, there is a stereotype that men work outside while women work within the house. This traditional concept decreases the employment rate of married women. Even though there are different policies that deal with the problems regard of improving the situation of unemployment in married women and low birth rate, however there are no prominent positive changes during last 20 years. Thus, adjusting the stereotype and creating a new concept of accepting more women in work place in Japan is a critical goal in the future.
    Appears in Collections:[亞洲研究所] 學位論文

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