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    題名: 美國亞利桑那州1070號移民法案之研究
    其他題名: A case study on the anti-illegal immigration legislation-arizona SB1070
    作者: 許育瑋;Hsu, Yu-Wei
    貢獻者: 淡江大學美洲研究所碩士班
    紀舜傑
    關鍵詞: 亞利桑那州;1070號法案;移民法案;非法移民;Arizona;SB1070;Immigration Legislation;illegal immigrants
    日期: 2012
    上傳時間: 2012-06-21 06:27:12 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 亞利桑那州於2010年4月23日通過了1070號法案,此法被公認為美國近幾十年來最為嚴厲的反非法移民法案。這項法案最大的爭議在於非法移民將被視為刑事犯,該法並規定警察可以對任何他們有正當理由懷疑是非法移民的人進行盤查和逮捕。

    由於美國與拉美國家的經濟實力存在著巨大的差異,因而自然地形成了來自拉美國家經濟落後的推力與美國豐富就業機會的拉力,使得多數非法移民想盡辦法偷渡到美國境內,以尋求更好的生活環境。

    然而,為了有效應對非法移民此一問題,美國國會自80年代以來開始通過抑制非法移民的法案。究其原因,非法移民所牽涉的問題面向是多元的,不僅廣泛且複雜,從國家安全問題如邊境控管和防堵恐怖份子,再到教育和醫療等國內事務都可涉及非法移民。本文的1070號移民法案便是亞利桑那州政府試圖驅除境內非法移民,並阻止其非法入境的一項反非法移民措施。

    綜上所述,施行任何政策或措施總有它的一體兩面,以1070號法案來說,它滿足了大多數亞利桑那州人的民意要求,即是阻止大量非法移民湧入亞利桑那州,加強管控邊境,杜絕邊境犯罪的訴求,但也因為法案對非法移民過於嚴厲的制裁手段,以及潛在侵犯合法移民人權的疑慮,導致爭議不斷。對此,制定法案以及執法相關人員只能在正反雙方間盡量求取平衡,畢竟長期非法移民氾濫及其所造成的相關問題勢必是要解決的,因而如何有效執法而不濫權就考驗執法者的智慧了。
    On April 23, 2010, SB1070 was passed in the U.S. state of Arizona that at the time of passage was the broadest and strictest anti-illegal immigration measure in recent U.S. history. The Act additionally makes it a state misdemeanor crime for an alien to be in Arizona without carrying the required documents, requires that state law enforcement officers attempt to determine an individual’s immigration status during an awful stop, detention or arrest when there is reasonable suspicion that the individual is an illegal immigrant.

    Due to the economic gap between the U.S. and Latin America, it thus formed a push force by the Latin American countries and a pull force by the U.S., which makes illegal immigrants flood into the U.S. from Latin America countries in pursuit of better living environment.

    However, in order to deal with the problem of illegal immigrants, the U.S. Congress started to pass anti-illegal immigration legislations since 1980s. Basically, illegal immigrants involve in multidimensional issues, for instance, national security (border control and the prevention of terrorists) and domestic affairs (education and medical care). Therefore, the purpose of SB1070 is to drive out those illegal immigrants stayed in Arizona unlawfully and prevent them from illegal entry into Arizona.

    Above all, there are pros and cons of the implementation concerning any policy or measure. Take SB1070 for example, although it meets the requirements of most Arizonians, it also receives national and international attention and has spurred considerable controversy. Consequently, lawmakers and law executors should try to reach the balance between the two sides of supporters and opponents. After all, the problem of illegal immigrants is bound to be solved. Besides, how to enforce the law effectively without the abuse of power is thorny to the law executors.
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