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    題名: 美國境內非法移民對國內勞工所得分配之衝擊
    其他題名: The impact of illegal immigration on U.S. income distribution
    作者: 范博禎;Fan, Po-Chen
    貢獻者: 淡江大學美洲研究所碩士班
    柯大衛;Kleykamp, David
    關鍵詞: 非法移民;所得分配;固定效果;州級資料;邊界;農業;共和黨;民主黨;地理區域;illegal immigration;Income distribution;Fixed Model;State Level;Border;Agricultural;republican;Democratic;Geography Regions
    日期: 2012
    上傳時間: 2012-06-21 06:26:57 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 2007年在美國境內的非法移民數量超過1210萬人以上,龐大的數量規模,所帶來的各種間接或直接影響不可小覷之。本研究探討非法移民對美國整體勞動力市場的影響後,著重於非法移民數量改變對勞工所得分配所產生的影響。
    使用特殊的州級資料,來分析非法移民對於所得分配的影響。理論模型指出非法移民數量的增加,將會擴大所得分配的差距。實證結果證明原先的理論假設無誤,非法移民數量的增長會擴大所得分配差距程度,這是重要的新研究結果。另外,這些影響並非由於景氣循環所導致,因為迴歸過程中已使用州失業率來進行控制。
    非法移民的數量變動,確實對於各州大都會區域之所得差距扮演重要的角色。非法移民的數量增加,因財富分配不均的狀況,使得所得分配差距程度出現增加。本研究雖未特別針對勞工進行對象區分,但勞工所得分配差距程度的增加,乃因非法移民人口比例的增加,對於不同對象的勞工產生了不同程度的衝擊而造成。本研究呈現出一個簡明的事實,非法移民確實對於勞工所得分配具有影響,尤其表現在特定對象或區域之勞工。
    基礎實證研究中發現,非法移民人口比例如增加10%,將會擴大所得分配約1.3%的差距程度。針對非法移民人口比例增加,所產生的所得分配差距程度擴大進行探討,還發現鄰近南方邊界區域存在不同的機制,一種對於非法移民的包容機制,不同於其他區域。於不同區域或特徵劃分下,所得到的不同研究結果,更能提供相關研究進一步的探討,也顯現出不同的事實。
    The United States is well known to be a country of immigrants. It has experienced numerous waves of immigration over the past 150 years. However, in recent times, the number of illegal immigrants in the US has risen substantially. Large numbers of illegal immigrants can now be found in nearly every one of the US fifty states. The existence and scale of the illegal immigration has generated considerable public pressure for analysis and change. This thesis considers one important aspect which is often discussed in the literature on illegal immigration; namely, the issue of whether or not illegal immigration has had a substantial impact on the distribution of income in the United States. The thesis first discusses, in a simple and direct fashion, the original theoretical foundation provided by W. Ethier on the subject of illegal immigration and wages. It then turns to a panel data set on high versus low incomes ranging over the individual fifty US states for selected years. Additional data on unemployment and regional dummy variables are included, as well. It is found that after controlling for business cycle influences, illegal immigration is directly and significantly correlated with the spread between high and low incomes among the fifty US states. However, while the effect is statistically significant, the magnitude of this effect is still not particularly large. A 10% rise in illegal immigration spread evenly over the states can be expected to increase the spread between high and low incomes by only 1-2%. A number of regional discrepancies for this effect, as well as their possible political differences are explored in the thesis.
    顯示於類別:[美洲研究所] 學位論文

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