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    Title: 美國最初政黨政治之研究 : 1787-1814
    Other Titles: The first American political party system : 1787-1814
    Authors: 周辰陽;Chou, Chen-Yang
    Contributors: 淡江大學美洲研究所碩士班
    紀舜傑;Ji, Shun-jie
    Keywords: 美國政黨;最初政黨;聯邦黨;民主共和黨;American Political Parties;First Party System;Federalist Party;Democratic-Republican Party
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2012-06-21 06:26:55 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 政黨於採行民主體制的現代民主國家為不可或缺之政治媒介,受到環境與政治文化影響而產生不同特色,並為爭取執政與多數認同而彼此競爭。美國的政黨政治受政治制度與社會環境的影響,卻非在最開始時即受到認同。開國元勳們僅認可政黨難以消滅而未給予正面評價,直至政治發展導致政治人士彼此之間的利益有所衝突。不同經濟政策理念與對聯邦政府權力擴展與否,促使喬治.華盛頓政府內部有所衝突:財政部長漢彌爾頓主張重商政策與強力的國家政府,國務卿湯瑪斯.傑佛遜維持農業利益與民眾自我管理。追求改造國會的結構、全國政治報紙的出現、地區利益有別、意識形態的差別與民眾對於傳統政治模式的挑戰等因素,兩人的支持者最終因外交因素組成兩個美國的最初政黨:聯邦黨與民主共和黨。

    兩個最初政黨的成員均相信其致力於挽救美國,質疑其敵手陰謀毀滅國家。透過應對法國外交危機取得優勢,聯邦黨制定政策推動其奉行之強力中央政府的方針,並試圖以「外籍法與懲治叛亂法」維護傳統的菁英政治參與。民主共和黨認定此係違憲擴權,而傑佛遜提出「肯塔基與維吉尼亞宣言」之原稿,主張州有權廢止聯邦法律的憲法理論意圖反制。聯邦黨質疑對立者主張聯邦解體,民主共和黨認定該年選舉為保衛共和體制的最後機會,雙方在一八零零年大選相繼極端化,雙方均不惜犧牲美國存續作為解決總統當選人懸而未決之政治僵局的代價。

    聯邦黨於一八零零年大選失利而同時失去立法與行政部門的主導權,政治分歧轉發生於以約翰.馬歇爾首席大法官為首、仍秉持聯邦黨政治思想的聯邦司法部門和民主共和黨掌握的行政與立法部門。於此同時,美國社會持續處於轉型之中,傾向平等與民主思想的民眾成為新社會的中堅力量。仍以菁英為核心的聯邦黨無法適應此種變化並難以轉型為真正的政黨,無力應對傑佛遜之執政擴大民主共和黨的優勢,逐漸萎縮為地方政黨之餘,黨內的強硬派開始提倡脫離聯邦。一八一二年爆發的美英戰爭促使民主共和黨接受強力國家政府的政策之際,未能適應社會變化且悲觀的聯邦黨成員選擇於一八一四年末,在康乃狄克哈特福德舉行過程不透明的政治集會,讓其名譽掃地並被質疑叛國。固然聯邦黨因無法復原而於一八一零年代末期瓦解,兩個政黨部分的爭執仍為次一個政黨體制所承繼。

    藉由分析歷史書籍與相關文獻,本論文聚焦於一七八七年至一八一四年間之早期美國政治與政黨發展;透過研究政黨奠基、極端化與衰退等三個時期,從而解釋美國政黨的發展與影響。
    Political parties are necessary instruments for political affairs in the modern democratic countries. Such parties would have the particular characters through different environments and political cultures and compete for powers. The combinations of the American political parties are influenced by the specific political institutions and social circumstances, but they have not been approved in the very beginning; although they understood that it was inevitable, Founding Fathers did not appreciate the existence of political parties. However, the political developments created collisions between the leading political figures of 1790s.

    In addition to the disagreement on the economical development, the principle argument within George Washington administration was the scale of the federal government; Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton promoted the mercantile programs and a consolidated government, and Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson supported the ideas of agricultural interests and self-government. With the efforts to alter the composition of Congress, the establishment of the national political newspapers, the sectional interests, the different political ideologies, the challenge to the traditional hierarchy and the European issues, adherents of Hamilton and Jefferson eventually assembled as the two first political parties: the Federalist Party and the Democratic-Republican Party.

    Each of them believed that they were trying to save the Union and conjectured that their adversaries conspired to ruin their nation. By the advantages responding to the French crisis, the ardent Federalist congressional members initiated the policies enhancing the federal government, and they also enacted “The Alien and Sedition Acts” to preserve the traditional elite leadership. The Democratic-Republicans considered such policies were unconstitutional; Jefferson delivered the original draft of “The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions,” which proposed that the state had the right to null and void unconstitutional federal laws. The two parties became radicalized during the general election of 1800. The Federalists believed their opponents were disunionists, the Democratic-Republicans considered the election as the final opportunity to defend the republican institution, and both of them had the willing to sacrifice the continuance of the Union to resolve the gridlock of determining the President-elect.

    After the Federalists lost the elections of 1800, the political conflicts were occurred between the federal judicial branch, whose members leading by Chief Justice John Marshall remained strong Federalist thinking, and the other two branches occupying by President Jefferson and Democratic-Republicans. In the meantime, the contemporary Americans continued to experience the social transformation; the people advocating egalitarian and democratic ideas became the leading force in the new society. The Federalists were unable to respond adequately or re-organize as a solid political force confronting the popular Jefferson government; they retreated as a sectional party of New England, and the pessimistic radicals began to urge secession.

    While the Democratic-Republicans gradually acknowledged and accepted the importance of the powerful federal government during the War of 1812, the New England Federalists held a confidential convention at Hartford, Connecticut in the end of 1814. The messages of the Hartford Convention were publicly announced after the war was over. Although the Federalists were disgraced, suspected treason and their party collapsed in the final years of 1810s, some controversies between the two first political parties were inherited by the next generation.

    The thesis would put emphasize on the developments of the political parties on the period from 1787 to 1814; by analyzing the historical books, papers and other materials, the thesis would introduce the first parties in different phases, including the beginning, the radicalizing and the decline, to present the main theme: the influence of the first parties in the early republic of America.
    Appears in Collections:[美洲研究所] 學位論文

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