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    题名: 烏力貝執政期間(2002-2010)哥倫比亞與美國政經關係之研究
    其它题名: A study of the political and economic relations between Colombia and the U.S. in the Uribe's presidency (2002-2010)
    作者: 李魁德;Lee, Qua-Te
    贡献者: 淡江大學美洲研究所碩士班
    林欽明;Lin, Chin-Ming
    关键词: 烏力貝;毒品;游擊隊;民兵組織;哥倫比亞計畫;自由貿易協定;Álvaro Uribe;Drug;Guerilla;Paramilitary;Plan Colombia;free trade agreement
    日期: 2012
    上传时间: 2012-06-21 06:26:52 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 在拉美國家新左派崛起之際,哥倫比亞烏力貝總統旗幟鮮明的極右派引人注目,尤其在任期間(2002-2010)執行「哥倫比亞計畫」及簽署哥美自由貿易協定,凸顯出哥美兩國政經合作的密切性。哥國內部的暴力衝突來源-毒品、游擊隊、民兵組織-係美國於反共、反毒、反恐戰爭中,一再得以干預哥國的最佳理由,為何美國願意挹注高援助金額協助哥國?為何烏力貝執政期間哥美兩國政經關係如此密切?
    本研究發現美國擬藉由與哥國簽署自由貿易協定及通過「哥倫比亞計畫」企圖解決哥國衝突,以維護美國能源安全及跨國公司的利益。同樣,烏力貝在缺乏政黨奧援,以獨立身分參選贏得總統選舉後,亦藉由前述計畫鞏固其政權,成為哥國第一位經修憲後得以連選連任的總統,並有意再參加第三次總統大選。
    但是「哥倫比亞計畫」中過於強調軍事手段對付毒品及游擊隊,造成與周邊國家關係緊張,忽略以經濟及社會計畫解決哥國內部糾結複雜的問題,而哥美自由貿易協定生效後的獲利者將為跨國公司或財團,並非普羅大眾,對於哥國民眾最渴望的和平,解決社會不平等問題似乎遙遙無期。本文亦發現哥國與美國未來政經關係走向不僅繫於美國,同時取決於哥國如何在繼續尋求美國支持與改善周邊左派國家關係作選項,以及毒品撲滅係採軍事策略與社經計畫兩者中取得最佳平衡點。
    In comparison with the rise of the neo-left wing in Latin America, Álvaro Uribe, the president of Colombia (2002-2010), represented a clear-cut image of the right wingers, especially, the implementation of "Plan Colombia" and the Colombia-U.S. Free Trade Agreement during his tenure, highlighted the closely political and economic relations between the two countries. Drugs, guerrillas and paramilitary groups, which were generally acknowledged as the origin of the Colombian internal conflicts, formed the best excuses for the U.S. to intervene in Colombia in the fields of anti-communist, anti-drugs and anti-terrorism war. Why was the U.S. willing to inject a high amount of financial aid to assist Colombia? Why did the political and economic relations between the two countries remain so close during the Uribe’s administration?
    Through this thesis, we can find that the U.S. intended to safeguard the U.S. energy security and the interests of multinational corporations via the free trade pact and the "Plan Colombia" attempting to solve the domestic conflicts in Colombia. On the other hand, Uribe, as an independent candidate, won a first-round presidential election, and promised to crack down hard on rebel groups through the American aid; he also became the first president who was consecutively re-elected by constitution amendment in Colombia, and intended to participate in the third presidential election.
    However, the "Plan Colombia" put too much emphasis on military means to deal with drugs and guerrillas, it resulted in strained relations with the neighboring countries, and ignored economic and social programs to tackle Colombia’s complex internal problems. If Colombia Free Trade Agreement enters into force, the multinational companies or consortia will be benefited instead of the general public. Therefore, Colombian desiring peace and solving the problem of social inequality will not be easily realized in the near future. Furthermore, this study also found that the development of Colombia-U.S. political and economic relations toward the future not only depends on the United States, but also on how Colombia government seeks U.S. support, improves relations with the left-wing neighboring countries, and achieves balance in adopting the military strategy and socio-economic projects in the drug eradication.
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