瞭解兩岸大學生之歷史思維：民主公民素養的探究 在兩岸和解的氣氛中，台灣與中國未來的走向如何，將受其公民對歷史的認知及民主素養的影響。特別是新一代受教育的年輕人對於歷史本質的看法，將與其國家認同與對民主的看法有關。兩岸歷史教育於1990年代，在國際歷史思維研究的影響下，都朝向重視證據及歷史思維能力的方向前進。新一代的年輕人有可能對國家的歷史詮釋有較為理性思辯的空間，有可能產生較為包容差異，理性看待兩岸不同的歷史思維傾向。當新一代的公民能具有包容不同觀點與意見，容許不同之歷史詮釋，則兩岸所各自宣稱的「民主」制度與公民素養才有實質的意義，兩岸也較有進一步和解的基礎。本研究第一年，試圖從兩岸現行高中教科書探究其歷史教學目的、歷史觀點、歷史詮釋及歷史思維能力的訓練，來檢視教科書之公民教育取向。第二年，對兩岸之大學生進行歷史思維及歷史觀點的探究，以瞭解兩岸新一代的知識公民將有怎樣的歷史思維傾向及民主或非民主素養，以及兩岸公民的民主對話是否可能。 Understanding Taiwan and China’s students’ historical thinking: A study of democratic citizenship In pursuing peace, China and Taiwan’s citizens’ understanding about history and their democratic dispositions will determine the future of the two sides of Taiwan Straight. It is quite possible that the new generation’s understanding about the nature of history relates to their belief about national identity and democracy. In the 1990s, both Taiwan and China learned from the international history education community and began to move history education toward more evidence-based and historical thinking-oriented teaching and learning. The new generation of young people might be more rational and open to diverse views about national history; they may develop attitudes of embracing diversity and rational thinking toward Taiwan’s and China’s histories. When the new generation’s citizens begin to allow different views and historical interpretations, then the “democracy” claimed by both sides have real meanings to their people and form a better foundation for peace talks. The first year of this study examines high school textbooks from both sides of the Straight. It seeks to understand their purposes for history education, historical perspectives, historical interpretations, and the kind of historical thinking abilities that they train their citizens to do in order to know each side’s orientation toward citizenship education. The second year, I explore college students’ historical thinking orientations from both sides in order to know whether democratic or undemocratic dispositions are cultivated, and whether democratic dialogue is possible between the two sides.