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    Title: 天氣論述---氣候、倫理學與生態溝通
    Other Titles: Under the Weather--- Climate, Ethics and Ecological Communication
    Authors: 蔡振興
    Contributors: 淡江大學英文學系
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2012-05-03 20:26:25 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 風雲不測: 全球暖化、倫理學和生態溝通 「全球暖化」(global warming)意指地球中的大氣和海洋的平均溫度正在增加當中,而造成全球暖化的二大主因者則與溫室效應和二氧化碳的排放量有關。因此,全球暖化所帶來的多重災害包括疾病、生態系的混亂、土地的沙漠化和物種(植物和動物)的減少等。在一九八七年的〈為自然說句話〉(Speaking a Word for Nature)的一篇文章中,山德士(Scott R. Sanders)指出「文學的主要表達是讓我們瞭解我們存在這個地球上的生態涵義」,尤其是今日我們所面臨的全球暖化和社會行動的議題。 天氣是我們生活的一部份。它不知不覺地形塑和深化我們的環境想像。在這二年的計畫中,第一年的題目為〈全球暖化與魯賓遜《首都三部曲中的科學》〉,主要的目地是要探討魯賓遜(Kim Stanley Robinson)的全球暖化三部曲:《四十種下雨徵兆》(Forty Signs of Rain)、《零下五十度》(Fifty Degrees Below)和《計時六十天》(Sixty Days and Counting)。在這個計畫中,我將討論魯賓遜全球暖化三部曲中的全球暖化的原因,以及它對政治和經濟的影響。更重要的是,在全球暖化已經發生時,「土地改造」(terraforming)如何成為可能性的未來想像? 第二年我將撰寫〈天氣敘述、全球暖化與生態溝通〉(Weather Narratives, Global Warming and Ecological Communication)。文章分為兩部份:第一部份指出傳統的觀看方式,如羅馬俱樂部的研究小組在一九七二年提交人類困境的計畫並出版《成長的極限》一書和馬奇本(Bill Mckibben)所預言的「自然終結」(the end of nature),兩者皆與艾倫費德(David Ehrenfeld)的「人本主義的驕傲」(the arrogance of humanism)有關,而且兩者在理論層次上的說明是不足的。同樣的,在天氣敘述中,如瑞迪(Kevin E. Ready)的《哭泣的大地之母》(Gaia Weeps)、特那(George Turner)的《淹沒的高塔》(Drown Towers)也與道德勸說有關。因此,本文指出全球暖化作為一種生態溝通不應以道德來解決風險問題。職是,本文將用魯曼的「生態溝通」做為方法的基礎,強調客觀的認知(cognition)和具複雜性的二階觀察理論來觀察天氣敘述。
    Under the Weather: Climate Change, Ethics and Ecological Communication Robin Tsai, Tamkang University “Global warming” is understood to mean that “the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere and oceans is increasing” (Masahiro 7), and it is caused by two main contributive factors: the greenhouse effect (Flannery 19-20) and the rise of CO2 levels in the earth’s atmosphere (Flannery 27-35). The myriad effects of global warming include the melting of icecaps in the Arctic Ocean, a rise in sea level, the extinction of plants and wildlife, and the spread of disease, to name only the notable. In his 1987 essay “Speaking a Word for Nature,” eco-critic Scott Russell Sanders proffers a “key articulation of what literature needs to do if it’s to get us to acknowledge the ecological implications of our presence on the planet,” especially the exigent issues of global warming and social action (Slovic 118). Degree by degree, the temperature of weather has become ingrained in our quotidian life. Without our knowing, it looms large, shaping and sharpening our environmental imagination. Weather is now both feared and revered. A burning issue, global warming (with its consequential change in weather patterns) merits eco-critical exploration. Over the course of a two-year research project, I will examine how contemporary writers represent global warming, focusing on Kim Stanley Robinson’s Science in the Capital trilogy and Niklas Luhmann’s anti-moral approach to global warming narratives. I will bring Benjamin’s criteria of political tendency and technique-as-literary-quality to bear on my analysis of eco-social implications in these works. First year: Global Warming in Kim Stanley Robinson’s Science in Capitol Trilogy Set in Washington, D.C., the three novels of Kim Stanley Robinson’s Science in the Capital trilogy—Forty Signs of Rain, Fifty Degrees Below and Sixty Days and Counting—are de facto works about climate change, portraying a “chillingly realistic tale of people caught in the collision of science, technology, and the consequences of global warming.” In Forty Signs of Rain, Charlie Quibler, an environmental policy advisor for Senator Phil Chase, together with his wife Anna, a science administrator and finicky perfectionist (18), attempt to convince Senator Chase to adopt greenhouse climate policies. Meanwhile, a group of Buddhist monks arrive in Washington to lobby for the island nation of Khemblung, which is sinking due to rising sea levels. Unlike the monks, politicians remain unresponsive to climate change and its effects. Fifty Degrees Below picks up where Forty Signs of Rain left off. Frank, a character who attended the meeting of the lobbying monks in the first novel, decides to stay in the nation’s capital for another year to help mitigate abrupt climate changes after a global warming-caused deluge. Unable to find a good place to live, Frank “goes feral.” In the process, he becomes acquainted with a group of homeless people and builds a tree house, in which he attempts to survive the winter cold. As the title of the book suggests, temperatures in D.C. have reached fifty degrees below zero, a result of a total stagnation of the warm Atlantic Gulf Stream following the melting of the polar ice caps. Later in the novel, Frank spends a fair amount of time with the Khembalese – the island nation citizens whose land is sinking. Throughout the book, Frank’s musings upon man’s special relationship with nature and how humanity’s struggle against the environment has shaped our thoughts, actions and responsibilities to nature and to other people are taken into account and, in my analysis of this work, I will
    Appears in Collections:[英文學系暨研究所] 研究報告

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