以雙向優選理論探討客語基本語序排列 本研究計畫將以雙向優選理論 (Bidirectional Optimality Theory) 為基礎架構，從句法、語意、語用的制約條件來分析及探討客語的基本語序排列。本計畫將由兩種途徑蒐集語料：一是由楊時逢 (1957) 所編寫「台灣桃園客家方言」一書當中所採集海陸客語部分11則短篇故事；二是由研究者與客語母語者會面諮詢所獲得之口語語料。而在分析語料方面，本計畫將分成以下兩個主要部分：第一部分主要針對客語基本語序，以論元的顯著性 (prominence) 和 對齊制約 (alignment constraints) 為主要角度分析主語、賓語、謂語、副詞修飾語在簡單及複雜句中允許的語序排列。第二部分針對介系詞組的句法位置。首先，研究者會把語料中之所有介系詞組分為補述語 (complement) 及附加語 (adjunct)兩大類，接著探討所有附加語介系詞組的功能和修飾內容，以及補述語介系詞組的各種相關論旨角色 (thematic roles)，進而藉由顯著性和對齊制約的交互作用 (interaction) ，在雙向優選理論的架構下，分析各種介系詞組在客語句子中被允許或被限制出現的位置。本計畫最重要的貢獻之一即是以當代主流的語法理論分析客語語序，以優選理論為架構，找出對應客語結構之各種相關的普遍性制約條件 (universal constraints) 及其階層排列 (constraint ranking)。 A Bi-directional Optimality Theoretic Approach on the Word Order of Hakka Sentence Constructions This research project will explore the word order of Hakka sentence structures, and then form a constraint-based analysis on the basis of a Bi-directional Optimality Theoretic approach. The data will be collected from two sources: written texts extracted from eleven folk stories in Yang’s collection (1957), and oral data elicited from meeting sessions with Hakka native speakers. The project will be divided primarily into two parts. In the first part, the research will emphasize on the basic word order of Hakka. By assigning ranking on the feature of prominence to arguments associated with different grammatical relations, these NPs compete with each other to get to the edged position of phrases, which results in all the possible basic ordering patterns in this language. The second part of project focuses on the position of PPs. In this part all the PPs collected from the written texts and oral sessions will be classified into two types: adjunct and complement PPs. The researcher will discuss the function and content of all adjunct PPs; while for complement PPs, the researcher will identify the thematic role associated with each of them. The PPs will be ranked on the same scale according to the hierarchy that follows the generally agreed prominence relation between complements and adjuncts, as well as the language specific hierarchy that will be developed in this project, which ranks the prominence among the PPs associated with different functions and thematic roles. These PPs then compete with each other to get to the edge of phrases based on a set of ranked positional alignment constraints. The process triggers all the permitted word orders involving the occurrence of single or multiple PP(s) in the same clause. In sum, this research project manages to provide the Optimality Theoretic based evaluations from both the syntactic and semantic perspectives to successfully account for the basic and complex word orders found throughout the Hakka sentence structure; that is, to propose relevant OT-style constraints and assign these constraints with their relative ranking to successfully characterize the basic grammatical schema of Hakka. A significant contribution of this study is to build a connection between Hakka, a less studied language, and the Optimality Theory, a formal linguistic theory.