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    题名: 客語的四種話題結構
    其它题名: On Four Types of Hakka Topic Construction
    作者: 曾郁景
    贡献者: 淡江大學英文學系
    关键词: 客家語;語(句)法;話題結構;描述性研究;類型研究
    Hakka;syntax;topic construction;descriptive grammar;typological study
    日期: 2010
    上传时间: 2012-05-03 20:25:51 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 客語的四種話題結構 漢語之中的「話題結構(Topic Construction)」一直是從事句法研究的漢語語言學者們致力探討的重要結構領域。其原因即在於漢語若將話題結構放置於句首,不但對句義的闡釋有相當影響,也關係到整個句子的語序排列,即主語、賓語、謂語的相關語法位置。本研究計畫將探討客家語的話題結構,蒐集客語使用者的實際口語語料,並將其聽音轉記為文字語料,進而實行語法句式的描述與分類。在重視本土語言文化的現今台灣學術領域,本計劃欲以現代語言學觀點探討本土語言的結構,期望能替弱勢的客家語法研究注入新的動力與契機。 本計劃將以訪談錄音方式蒐集第一手語料,語料之採集針對所謂「有標記的(marked)」話題結構做廣泛收集。而界定所謂話題結構的標準為對比一般「無標記的(unmarked)」基礎結構句型,話題結構把語意上特別顯明,需特殊加強語氣的主題成分(topic constituent)提前至特定語法領域(syntactic domain)之首,與其原本無標記的預設位置有所區別。 本研究並將以所採得之直接語料為基礎進行內容分析(data analysis)。以描述性語法(descriptive grammar)深入探討和說明客語當中話題結構的句型形式,並依照語法及功能將其分類。預計將客語話題結構分為至少以下四個類型: 除一般所熟知類似漢語在「外部主題(External Topic)」、「內部主題(Internal Topic)」所做區分之外,還有其他兩種特殊類型。以客家語ziong/lau字為核心(Head)之動詞前介系詞組(Preverbal Prepositional Phrase),此一句型含有具強調論元結構(Argument Structure)當中受事者(Patient)角色之語用功能;另外本研究更將提出一個概念,企圖將「非限定關係子句(Non-restrictive Relative Clause)」與話題結構連結,並主張客語的非限定關係子句當中接受主題化(Topicalize)的核心名詞組,其句法位置(Syntactic Position)為整個核心詞組加上關係子句附加語之最左首。除此之外,本計畫亦預期發現其他尚未列入以上分類之話題句式種類,期望能從實際語料當中發掘其他為研究者所忽略的結構,以替客語的話題結構建立一完整的類型研究(Typological Study)。
    On Four Types of Hakka Topic Construction This research project will extensively explore the structure of topic construction in Hakka. The overall plan involves: 1) collecting original oral data by recording narration from native Hakka speakers; 2) transcribing the collected oral data into written texts; 3) examining the transcribed data to look for sentences perceived as involving the process of topicalization; 4) analyzing these sentences to advance a thoughtful syntactic description of the construction at issue; and 5) proposing a typological study by classifying the Hakka topic construction into different types. As other Chinese languages, Hakka is generally taken to be an SVO language. The topic construction can be identified when the object, interpreted as the topic of sentence, occurs in preverbal position. The researcher will tentatively build a typological study based on the data collected during the term of this project. At least four types are expected to be identified. In addition to the first two types, external topic and internal topic, which have been well-accepted as two distinct kinds of construction by many Chinese linguists in their studies about the parallel structures of Mandarin Chinese, the project will further identify the third type of construction which is realized by the preverbal ziong/lau-phrase. The prepositional phrase headed by ziong/lau functions to syntactically and pragmatically emphasize the NP argument marked with the patient thematic role. Beyond this, the project will propose a new type of phrasal topic, which positions the most prominent constituent within an NP domain to the left edge, relevant to the so-called non-restricted relative construction. The research will provide substantial empirical evidence for the above classification; besides, the data found as relevant to the topic function but excluded from the four types will potentially lead to the fifth type of topic construction. In sum, the main purpose of this research project aims to establish a typology for the Hakka topic construction. The research focus will begin with the four types mentioned above, and along the way new insights may be obtained as the authentic data produced by the native speakers suggests any new category to be added to the classification. In other words, the project is designed to focus on, but not limited to, the syntactic behavior of the four prospective types, any kind of new discovery will be taken into consideration.
    显示于类别:[英文學系暨研究所] 研究報告

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