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    題名: 好萊塢的莎士比亞---當代莎翁電影中的流行文化與後殖民空間(II)
    其他題名: When Shakespeare Moves to Hollywood--- The Popular Cultural and Post-Colonial Sapces Inhabited by Kenneth Branagh's Films on Shakespeare (II)
    作者: 吳怡芬
    貢獻者: 淡江大學英文學系
    日期: 2010
    上傳時間: 2012-05-03 20:24:49 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 莎士比亞劇作的改編電影在1990年代蔚為風潮,也讓莎士比亞學派由單純的學術研究一躍成為影視娛樂的視覺饗宴。現今以貼近流行文化為出發點所重新創作的莎劇電影,不但對莎劇文本論述、電影分析與表演評論之間的相互關係提供了更為廣泛的討論,也開啟了原版與改編版;電影呈現與文化研究之間的各項探討。本研究旨在探究1990年代肯尼斯布萊納(Kenneth Branagh)以流行文化為主流所拍攝之莎劇電影成為一股風潮,重新定義了莎士比亞電影的意涵。布萊納藉著大卡司的參與、年輕流行文化的融入,與好萊塢的市場雄厚資金的加持,翻新了傳統的莎士比亞電影,也讓莎士比亞更平易近人。 本研究延續第一年計畫,整理歸納布萊納四部莎士比亞改編電影 (「亨利五世」 (Henry V, 1989)、「庸人自擾」 (Much Ado about Nothing,1996)、「哈姆雷特」(Hamlet, 1996) 與「皆大歡喜」(As You Like It, 2006) )在好萊塢流行文化影響下的各種巧妙變化。試圖將他賦予90年代莎士比亞改編電影的影響與後(新)殖民研究進行連結,從經濟力量塑造文化趨勢的觀點來探究布萊納販賣莎士比亞的文化買辦 (cultural comprador) 現象。布萊納與美國好萊塢合作改編英國莎士比亞戲劇的成功,類似(後)殖民體制下,弱勢殖民文化因西方的鑑定、代言,才得以被注意其文化特點;其文化價值的建立在於西方(知識)價值觀的肯定。因此,若以經濟、文化為主導的支配型態來檢視好萊塢代言莎士比亞的情況,那麼好萊塢將文化商品化、經濟化的強勢主導,用資金取代政治侵略力量對(國家)文化進行重建與收編,其實是一種另類的(新)殖民主義。這使得布萊納引薦莎士比亞給好萊塢運作,與非洲文化買辦經手非洲文物給西方博物館之間的類比,有了論述的空間。 好萊塢建立大眾對莎士比亞的認知包含了強烈的商業取向。當莎士比亞被收編成好萊塢品牌行銷世界,這其實是好萊塢將文化以商品化形式,支配了其它地方對莎士比亞的認同感。莎士比亞被轉換成好萊塢商品的過程,引發我們思考文化同質化 (cultural homogeneity) 的現象是否為現代資本主義擴張不可避免的結果。當莎士比亞改編電影在好萊塢商標的加持之下行銷全球,其原來的文化獨特性也隨著好萊塢商業標準的塑形而同一化。
    Shakespeare adaptation on film has become a popular culture especially in the 1990s, marking Shakespeare studies a shift from literary research to cinematic pleasure. The present film productions of Shakespeare’s plays that reconstruct a Shakespeare narrative in the realm of popular culture offer a broader discussion upon the interplay between the discourses of Shakespeare texts, film analyses, and performance criticism, opening up questions about the relation between original and adaptation, and about film presentation and cultural reading. This research is interested in exploring Kenneth Branagh’s remakes of Henry V (1989), Much Ado about Nothing (1993), Hamlet (1996), and As You Like It (2006), four films that infuse the filming of Shakespeare with popular culture, a growing trend that ‘renews’ the meaning of a Shakespeare film in the 1990s. The English tradition of Shakespeare film refurbished by Branagh, who realises Hollywood money is the hidden drive that steers Britain’s Shakespeare films, enters an arena built up by big cast, popular mass/youth culture, and Hollywood’s market capitalism that all make Shakespeare more accessible. The discussion of Branagh’s four films to the extent to his influence exerted to other films (on Shakespeare) provides a premise to argue upon how the popularisation of Shakespeare on film has led to reconsider Branagh as a cultural comprador, a person deals with cultural exchange in post-colonial studies, as Branagh conceives Shakespeare as the property of ‘ethnic’ (British) group and his works the pieces of cultural knowledge. The British history, the British monarchy, the British accent, and the British actors are all intentionally commodified that serves to establish ‘British cultural images’ for the (Hollywood) market. Branagh’s success to promote ‘British’ Shakespeare to the ‘American’ market entails the discussion on the potential ‘post-colonial’ space inhabited by the role that Branagh plays in the promotion of Shakespeare films, allowing us to explore the articulation of cultural comprador intelligentsia, a term in this context not necessarily within the political frame of the coloniser vs. the colonised, but possibly constructed within cultural imperialism, a network of cultural commodities of world capitalism that has positioned Branagh’s interaction with Hollywood in the structure of (neo)post-colonialism.
    顯示於類別:[英文學系暨研究所] 研究報告

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