|摘要: ||從認知解讀機制探索外語幽默意涵─西班牙文雙關語分析 幽默可就廣義和狹義區分為情景幽默和言語幽默兩類，後者是本研究關注的焦點。言語幽默屬一種特殊的語言交際形式，它是一個意圖與意義之間通過言語交相呼應的複雜過程，其特殊性在於：在文字表層的背後，隱藏著豐富的意義組合，幽默言語的效果即是這些意義經概念整合後的結果。幽默的實現主要取決於受話者，亦即他必須根據話語本身的信息、覺察說話者的意圖、且具備相關的背景知識，進行一連串的認知心理活動，從而達到獲取幽默的目的。 理解外語中的幽默言語對語言學習者而言常是頗具挑戰性的考驗。由於幽默言語涵蓋的範圍甚廣，本研究僅針對雙關語一類進行探討。雙關語可分為語音雙關和語義雙關兩種。雙關的本質實乃詞義間的關係，詞義間關係主要有原始和引申意義，普遍和特殊意義，具體和抽象意義，字面和轉借意義等。連貫理論從認知的角度強調人們理解話語的過程和話語本身及語境的關聯性。每一個雙關語可有許多種解釋，聽話者如何認定其中一種並排除其他選項，重點就在於找尋最佳關聯。而概念合成理論主要適用於闡釋話語解碼過程中的心理認知機制，它的基本單位是心理空間，亦即認知的輸入背景。在交際過程中，人們運用概念整合不停地建立心理空間，且在兩個或多個心理空間中來回對應，並整合出若干新的心理空間，人們透過概念整合，創造出語言的新用法、提昇了語言的生命力、同時也增加了自身對客觀世界的理解力。 本研究實驗以已有西語短文閱讀能力之西語學習者為施測對象，依不同語言能力(年級)分為初級(大二生)，中級(大三生)，和高級(大四生)三組各四十名。每組皆閱讀適合其程度之西班牙文雙關語三十則，隨機取一組中之一半填答A測驗卷，另一半填答B測驗卷。此實驗的目的有二：一、了解中國學生對西語不同類型的幽默意涵理解能力如何？印證難度排序是否一如上述？並根據結果在教學上視所空缺的知識予以補充；二、嘗試偵測出中國學生未能成功領會西語幽默的內在因素，並從認知機制的角度尋求解釋。|
The comprehension of humor in foreign language from the cognitive perspective－analysis of Spanish puns The humor can be divided, according to a broad sense and a narrow one, in two classes: situational humor and verbal humor, respectively. In the present paper we are interested in the second one. The verbal humor is a special kind of communication with a complex interaction process between the intention and the meaning, there is a lot of information behind the words, which is the final result of blending concepts, and the humorous effect will not be produced until the final result is completed. The accomplishment of the humor depends mainly on the hearer, this is to say, he must do many cognitive activities, basing on the words meaning, the intention of the speaker and the background knowledge to infer the unsaid and to understand the humor. The comprehension of verbal humor in foreign languages is often a difficult task for the nonnative speakers. Since the verbal humor is too generic, in this paper we will focus only on the puns. Puns are mainly classified into two types: one based on homophony and the other on polysemy. The essence of puns lies in the semantic relationship between words, which can be original sense vs. figurative sense, general sense vs. specific sense, concrete sense vs. abstract sense, apparent sense vs. hidden sense, etc. The Relevance Theory proposes from the cognitive point of view that the process of understanding of words depends heavily on the context. Since the words with more than one meaning can have several interpretations in a statement, the way that people chooses the most appropriate one discarding other possibilities is to find out the best relevance in the context. Later the Theory of Conceptual Combination is applied to explain how our cognitive mechanism works when they decipher words. According to this theory, people manage with the so-called "mental spaces" which are, namely, the input. During the communication process, people continuously combine concepts by elaborating mental spaces, moving among them and, in agree with the conclusion they have drawn, generating other new ones. By means of the conceptual combination, people create new uses of the language, intensify language’s expressive power and also improve their understanding of the objective world. The experiment is for the Spanish learners who are able to read short texts in this language, we divide them into three groups of 40 people according to their level (course) of Spanish: elementary, intermediate and advanced. Each group reads 30 puns compiled according to its respective levels and, later, a half of each group is designated to the questionnaire A and the other half the questionnaire B. The objectives of this experiment are the following: 1. testing the capacity that the learners have to catch different classes of humor and to verify the order of comprehension difficulty; 2. trying to detect the internal causes of that they fail to understand the humor and to seek cognitive explanations.