|摘要: ||現代日語中的頻率副詞及其周邊副詞，有像「ときどき(Tokidoki)」這種表頻率的副詞，有像「何度も(Nandomo)」這種表次數的副詞，有像「また(Mata)」這種表再發生的副詞，有像「毎日(Mainichi)」這種表反覆期間的副詞。 關於表次數的副詞，日語中有句「七転び八起き(Nanakorobi yaoki)」這樣的諺語，其意思是形容百折不撓的精神或比喻人生沉浮不定，若從字面上解釋是「七次跌倒八次爬起」。以次數的觀點來看的話，有「爬起的次數是跌倒次數加一次(n+1)」(n為自然數)這種合於常理的邏輯，但也有「爬起的次數等於跌倒次數(n)」這樣不合常理的邏輯。 本計畫以「度（Do）」「度（Tabi）」「回（Kai）」這種表次數的副詞為研究對象，從句尾出現的動詞特性、時間的限定性、動詞和「相(aspect)」之間的關係、說話者的心理態度等等觀點來考察這三種副詞在構文上的差異，並用認知言語學的角度來考察「度（Do）」「度（Tabi）」「回（Kai）」所表的次數是「n」或是「n+1」。其目的在於了解次數副詞在頻率副詞體系中的定位這件事。|
There are several types of frequency adverbs and peripheral adverbs in modern‐day Japanese: adverbs that express frequency, like “tokidoki”; adverbs that express how many times something happens, like “nandomo”; adverbs that express recurrence, like “mata”; and adverbs that express repetition, like “mainichi”. Speaking of adverbs that express how many times something happens, I would like to bring up a Japanese proverb, “Nanakorobi yaoki”, which is used to describe the ups and downs of life or the spirit of someone undaunted by repeated setbacks. The saying literally means “fall down seven times, get back up eight times.” In examining the number of occurrences this proverb suggests, “the number of times one gets up is the number of times one falls down plus one (n+1)”(let n stand for any natural number) is an explanation that fits common logic, but there is also a possible explanation “the number of times one gets up equals the number of times one falls down (n)” that defies normal reasoning. Focusing on “do”, “tabi”, and “kai”, three adverbs that express how many times something occurs, this study will conduct an investigation on their syntactic differences, taking into account the characteristics of verbs that appear at the end of sentences, time limitations, the relationship between verbs and aspect, and the mentality of the speaker. I will also use a cognitive linguistics perspective to examine “do”, “tabi”, and “kai” to determine whether they express (n) or (n+1) number of incidents. I hope to learn more about where to place these adverbs (that express how many times something occurs) in the system of frequency adverbs.