在無線感測網路(Wireless Sensor Networks, WSNs)以及視覺感測網路(Visual Sensor Network, VSNs)中，目標物追蹤一直是個非常重要的研究議題。近年來許多在WSNs中之目標物追蹤機制已被提出，相較於VSNs，WSNs具有成本低廉、容易佈建的特性。然而，WSNs只能提供目標物之移動軌跡。不同於WSNs，VSNs是由一組視覺感測節點(Camera Node)所構成，每個Camera Node皆具有收集目標物影像之能力，進而提供更豐富的目標物移動資訊。因此本論文分別對於WSNs以及VSNs提出保證追蹤品質之目標物追蹤機制。 在WSNs中，本論文提出一分散式目標物追蹤(Target tracking)演算法，其根據使用者所要求之目標物追蹤品質(Quality of Tracking, QoT)，盡可能地喚醒較少數量的感測器進行監控與追蹤的任務。此外，為了避免感測器間頻繁地醒睡切換，本論文亦將感測器之醒睡排程機制納入考量，藉以延長感測器的生命週期。實驗結果顯示，本論文所提出之目標物追蹤演算法，確實可保證其追蹤目標物移動軌跡之精準度，並達到延長整個感測網路之生命期的目標。 此外，除了WSNs，本論文亦結合WSNs與VSNs，提出一分散式演算法，由監控場景中感測器節點感測目標物存在與否，並合作決定出目標物之形狀，然後透過Camera Node進行追蹤照射，不同於近期的相關研究，本論文將不透明目標物的遮障問題納入考量，使得所挑選之Camera Node皆能滿足不透明目標物之完整照射，另一方面，本論文將二元感測節點先天感測的誤差值以及Camera Node所需的預留轉動或換手的時間亦納入考量，當目標物在場景中任意移動，所挑選的Camera Node也能保證連續追蹤，使得目標物在場景中任何時候的影像皆能被完整截取到。實驗結果顯示本論文可達到不透明目標物之完整照射，相較於以往之研究具有更高的目標物邊界覆蓋率，且當目標物移動時具有連續追蹤之效能。 Target tracking is one of the most important issues in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and visual sensor networks (VSNs). A number of target tracking mechanisms have been proposed for WSNs in recent years. Compared to the VSNs, the WSNs have potential characteristics of low cost, easy deployment and quick response. However, the tracking mechanisms developed for WSNs can only provide the trajectory of the interested mobile target. Different to the WSNs, the VSNs is composed of a set of visual sensor nodes each of which can capture the images of the mobile target, and thus provide rich information of the mobile target. This thesis investigates the target tracking mechanisms for both WSNs and VSNs network environments. For a given WSN, this thesis proposes a distributed target tracking approach which aims to satisfy the predefined quality of tracking while the number of awaked sensors is minimized. The sleep scheduling of each sensor is also taken into consideration to prevent the sensors from frequently switching between awake and sleep states. Performance study reveals that the proposed target tracking approach can efficiently obtain the accurate trajectory of the mobile target while the network lifetime can be prolonged in comparing with the existing works. In addition to the WSNs, this thesis also takes into consideration the integrated network environment which is composed of the WSNs and VSNs. A distributed target tracking mechanism is proposed aiming at achieving the full-view of the target while the number of working camera nodes and the camera rotation angles are minimized. Unlike the existing approaches, this thesis takes the unsighted problem of the nontransparent target into consideration. Developing a target tracking mechanism for the integrated WSNs and VSNs has a big challenge since the binary sensor node can only detect whether or not the target is located in its sensing range but cannot identify the location of the target. The deviation of the binary sensor node might cause the target missing problem. Another challenge for the target tracking problem is the rotation delay of the camera nodes which might also cause target missing problem when the handover procedure of the camera nodes are performed. This thesis takes into account the target missing problem and proposes a target tracking mechanism which guarantees that the selected camera nodes can achieve full-view images of the target continuously. Performance study reveals that the proposed full-view target tracking approach can efficiently catch the full-view images of the target continuously.