建築結構耐震設計與建築結構耐震能力評估是確保建築結構體耐震能力的一體兩面。建築結構耐震設計是依據建築結構設計規範及結構設計學理，設計建築結構體，主要用意在於賦予建築結構法定的耐震能力；而建築結構耐震能力評估是依據結構學理，論定新建或既有建築結構體的耐震能力，主要用意在於確認建築結構法定的耐震能力。 本論文針對鋼筋混凝土建築結構，以六樓及二十樓兩種中低層及中高層建築結構為例進行結構耐震反應分析、耐震設計及耐震能力評估，藉以瞭解建築結構耐震設計與耐震能力評估的一致性。論文中亦針對六樓及二十樓兩種建築結構在有無剪力牆、不同剪力牆位置、不同剪力牆厚度及不同剪力牆高度時之耐震反應分析、耐震設計及耐震能力評估所得結果的差異，藉以瞭解具有不同結構系統的建築結構在耐震設計與耐震能力評估的一致性，以及在耐震反應的差異。本論文之研究成果可供工程實務界人士在進行建築結構耐震設計及耐震能力評估時參酌引用。 Both of seismic resistance design and seismic capacity assessment are used to ensure the seismic capacity of building structures. Seismic resistance design of building structure is based on the building structural design codes and the structural design theory to design the building structure and let it possess the legal capacity. Seismic capacity assessment of building structure is based on the structural theory to assess the seismic capacity of the existing or the new building structures. This thesis looks into the consistency between seismic resistance design and seismic capacity assessment of reinforced concrete building structure through seismic response analysis of structures, the design as well as capacity assessment, with two typical examples of reinforced concrete structure with six stories and twenty stories. In order to realize the consistency between seismic resistance design and seismic capacity assessment of building structures with different structural systems, the different responses of reinforced concrete building structures with and without shear walls, with different position of shear walls, with different thickness of shear walls and with different height of shear walls are all detailed investigated in this thesis. Results of this thesis may serve as reference for designers of reinforced concrete building structures on conducting seismic resistance design and seismic capacity assessment.