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    題名: 太谷學派及其教育思想研究
    其他題名: Taigu school and the educational philosophy research
    作者: 楊奕成;Yang, Yih-Cherng
    貢獻者: 淡江大學中國文學系博士班
    曾昭旭
    關鍵詞: 清代;太谷學派;教育思想;儒學民間化;劉鶚;老殘遊記;Qing Dynasty;Taigu School;educational philosoph;Folk-oriented Confucianis;Liu, E
    日期: 2011
    上傳時間: 2011-12-28 18:43:43 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 太谷學派乃晚清社會的一道曙光,其致力於儒學民間化可謂不遺餘力,這對於身處亂世,飽受流離之苦的人而言,彷彿一帖珍貴的安定劑,並對日後的民間講學有莫大的影響力;故而本論文從「教育思想」的角度切入,探討太谷學派從南宗到南北合宗的階段,如何藉由創建草堂來傳播儒學,尤其在北宗經歷黃崖山事件後,他們如何自風雨飄搖的政治氛圍中,肩負起傳承師說與明道的使命,進而架構出一套太谷學派的教育思想論。接著,茲將各章節之大綱略述於後:
      本論文凡七章,第一章<緒論>:魯迅評劉鶚的《老殘遊記》曰:「作者信仰,並見於內。」故而興起吾人研究的動機,以達探究太谷學派思想的目的。其次,根據所搜集的相關著作及論文來分析,以明太谷學派在學界的研究概況。最終則是確立研究的範圍、主題及方法,藉由爬梳《太谷學派遺書》的原典,再輔以相關的資料,進行思辨與對話,以呈現太谷學派教育的宗旨。
      第二章<太谷學派的淵源與發展>:太谷學派自宗師周太谷起傳了四代,至民國以來仍餘波盪漾,而每一代的領袖所致力的方向皆不同;故本章依次介紹宗師周太谷,第二代「還道於北」的張積中、「傳道於南」的李光炘,第三代「維繫北宗」的朱淵、「續南援北」的蔣文田、「實現合宗」的黃葆年、「籌措資金」的劉鶚,第四代「宣揚學說」的李泰階、「著書立說」的劉大紳等人的生平及學派發展,並見證太谷學派透過各種行動來表現其思想的延續性與開創性。
      第三章<創建草堂與傳播儒學的關係>:李光炘的「龍川草堂」、朱淵的「養蒙堂」、蔣文田的「龍溪草堂」、黃葆年的「歸群草堂」,他們創建草堂一方面乃肩負傳承師說的使命,俾使學派能代代相續,另一方面則為傳播儒學,為明道而努力,故本章將對此加以闡述,以及這四大草堂如何有別於傳統的書院,藉此確立其在歷史長河的意義。其次,論述太谷學派如何把儒學的精神,藉由其多元的教學型態,充分展現出來,以達傳播的目的。
      第四章<太谷學派的倫理教育觀>:五倫的觀念向來為儒家所重視並落實於具體的生活中,太谷學派乃民間性的儒家學派,對於五倫的闡揚與發揮用力甚多,更思索如何將這觀念以易知易行的方式,傳播於中、下階層的百姓。首先,明瞭人性中的固有與本無,再致力於修德永保固有,進而德澤眾生,由此導出其「據德依仁的本體論」;接著,稟持天道下貫於人而立論,故而肯定情欲亦為天理的展現,然而必得以禮節之,情欲方不致橫梳,俾使理欲達到和諧的狀態,由此導出其「天理即人欲的調和論」;其次,孝與悌乃儒家所強調的,太谷學派向學生申以知身與保身的觀念,明乎此二者關係乃密不可分,方能體悟父母愛子之心一如天地愛眾生之心,故為政者必需以德化民,民智一開,自然對國家有認同感,由此導出其「推孝而忠的實踐論」;最終,太谷學派向學生申以經典乃明志的至理,切忌淪為經志殊途的腐儒,由此導出其「經志合一的治學論」。
      第五章<太谷學派的認知教育觀>:時至有清一代,形而上的思辨學風為經驗與實證所取代,致力於民間講學的太谷學派,思索著該如何將知識與道德融合,以利宣講,俾益學生吸收與實踐。首先,他們肯定天地萬物皆稟氣而生,故汛愛眾生乃必然,而又將氣與器結合,以回應時代的挑戰,另外,受宋儒氣稟有害的觀念影響,他們重視氣的存養與變化,由此導出其「氣本與氣質的天道論」;其次,吾人當明瞭身體之於人,只有使用權而無所有權,因此必需致力於身與命的修養,方能在面對死亡以及不順遂的外境時,達知命、安命的境界,而太谷學派便藉由身命、視聽言動、宗教、社會等角度來向學生闡發心息相依的修養方式,由此導出其「身命合德的心性論」;最終,則是希冀臻於外物與內物相和諧的境界,以及外境與內心彼此感格、渾合,這部分太谷學派又落實到人事層面來講,由此導出其「格物致知的工夫論」。 
      第六章<太谷學派的詩學教育觀>:漢民族是愛詩的,而太谷學派亦然,詩在其教育上具有陶冶性靈及涵養情意的功能,故他們不僅鑑賞詩篇,並藉由一次次的學人聚會而創作出一首首的詩篇,逐漸的也形成一套獨特的詩學理論。首先,他們認為風人的旨趣在於性情,這性情乃天所賜予,人皆有之,唯有致其誠方能感知這天人相應、古今相通的詩篇,由此導出其「寓性情於詩的本源論」;;其次,站在天命神靈默存於人心的觀點,詩篇都是人真性情的流露,故而他們不僅肯定民歌的價值,同時亦反對以紀實入詩,主張好詩當留予讀者神會、意會的空間,由此導出其「寓感通於詩的鑑賞論」;最終,則是要把理論落實於創作中,太谷學派認為一時代有一時的文學,不必崇古賤今,在創作的過程中提倡才學相合方能寫出好詩,而好詩的標準在真不在格律。以儒為本的太谷學派,也從教化為體,詩意為用的角度出發來寫詩,俾使學生收潛移默化之效,由此導出其「寓內涵於詩的創作論」。
      第七章<結論>:太谷學派的傳道活動由嘉慶以降賡續至抗日戰爭爆發,方匆促結束,雖然在學術史的長河裏一直處於被漠視的狀態;但其能將教育理念落實於五育中,對於當今的教育仍深具參考的價值。其次,由於時代的侷限,太谷學派代代相續的過程中所面對的問題亦不甚相同,故而導致彼此教育觀點歧異或矛盾之處,對此也將其思想做一總評。最終,乃對本論文研究的意義與發展,提出具體的檢討與期許。
    Taigu School is the emergence of late Qing dynasty, its devotion to the Folk-oriented Confucianism is account for the ultimate contribution; where the folks in the disturbance society, suffered the pain of expatriation; Taigu School however was a precious stabilizer for the era. It was a great influence to the later civilian lectures. The thesis angled from the "educational philosophy," in research of Taigu School from its southern sector to the north and south sector formation. In searching how Taigu School disseminated Confucianism through the foundation of Cottages when especially after the incidence of the North sector’s experience in Hongyashan event; how they took up the mission in dissemination of lecture and explanation, further in constructing a set of ideas on Taigu School Educational Philosophy in the time of a precarious political difficulties. The outline of the chapters is descripting as following:
      In this thesis are seven chapters, ChapterI<Preface>: Lu Xun''s assessment of Liu E''s" Travels,” stated: “Author’s belief, seen insight." This had inspired my motivation to research, in reaching to explore the purpose of Taigu School Philosophy. Furthermore, deliver an elicitation of Taigu School Research Summary in the accordance to the analysis of the collected works and thesis. In the end is to establish the scope, theme and methods of the study by the original inscription of "Taigu School testament;" supplemented relevant information, reflection and dialogue in display the principal of Taigu School Education.
      Chapter II, "The Origin and Development of Taigu School>: Taigu School had passed on from the Master Zhou Taigu and had been for four generations. Since the Republic of China, it continued to be unjustified for the divert emphasis of each leader of the time. Hence, it is introduced the life and the development of the School and witness Taigu School through various actions to show its continuity of philosophy and innovation in the order of Master Zhou Taigu , the second generation "Return to the North" Zhang Ji Zhon, "Preacher in the South" Li Gon Xi, the third generation "Connecting to the North Sector” Zhu Yuan, “ Protraction of the South and the aid of the North" Jiang Wen Tian, "Accomplishment and Association Sectors" Huang Bao Nian, “Foundation Subsidy” Liu E, the fourth generation "Uphold Doctrine" Lee Tae Je, "Publication Description" Liu Da Shen, etc.
      ChapterIII, <Relationship between Establishment of Cottage and Extension of Confucianism> : Li Gon Xin’s “Longchuan Cottage," Chu Yuan''s “Yang Meng Tong,” Jiang Wen Tian''s “Longxi Cottage," and Huang Bao Nian’s " Returning Groups of Cottage.” They took on the responsibility of allocating the legacy in one hand, and carried the mission for lecturing, thus passed on the school to generations. On the other hand, making efforts in spreading words of Confucianism in elaborating the principal; the chapter is in focus of deliberation and the difference from traditional four primary Cottages in its significant establishment of history. Secondly, in the discussion of how Taigu School unfolded and achieved the purpose of dissemination by elaborating the spirit of Confucianism with its diverse lecturing styles fully.
      Chapter IV < Ethical Education Concept>: The Five Cardinal Confucian concept has always been valued and implemented in concrete life. Taigu School is a Folk-oriented Confucianism, it has deeply influenced through its elaboration and application, moreover in conducting the school of thought for distribution among the middle and lower class folks. First, Taigu School apprehended the inherent human nature, the non-existence, re-committed to constantly maintain the inherent virtue, and furthermore enriched the virtue over its population. It derived of its "Ontology of rendering to the virtue and humanity;" then, the world was based on human as a principal; therefore the desire would be demonstrated as the rule of the world, however, reserved with its courtesy to scrutinize the desire; thus solidifying its rationalism to achieve a harmonious state. This derived its " reconcile theory in between the world rule is as human desire.” Other than that, familial devoutness and fraternal duty is what Confucianism emphasized. Taigu School students proclaimed to students to understand their health condition and maintain the health to reveal the inseparable bond. By means of realizing familial devoutness to the children is as the world to its folk. Hence the ruler shall administer the virtue in reinforcing to the folks. Once in democracy, the folks would sense the assimilation of identity. Consequently, it derived its “shift the familial devoutness to the loyalty as the theory of practice." In the end, Taigu School declared to students the ultimate theory is to practice, which shall not become unpractical and lead to a corruptive useless means. It derived the "theory of unified management."
      Chapter V <Taigu School cognitive educational philosophy>: During the time of Qing Dynasty, the philosophical and the empirical study were replaced by the experience and verification. The committed Taigu School thought about how to integrate knowledge and ethics to benefit lectures and to assist students to absorb and practice. First, they must assure all things were intrinsic to Chi, so the passion to the world is natural, and then combine the Chi and material devices in response to the challenge of times. Additionally, under the influence of Song Confucianism, regarded that all things were intrinsic to Chi was a misconception, they considered to maintain and vary the Chi in resulting the theory of "the nature of Chi and the temperament of the world." Then, I myself understand the body of humans is solitary the right to its usage without ownership, so the necessary commitment to the cultivation of body and life should be devoted in order to comprehend the attitude to life, the state of security when facing death and unfortunate. Taigu School conducted its philosophy in lecturing students to maintain health with life, audio-visual words, religion, and social perspectives. Subsequently it derived the "bonded theory of life and virtue.” In the end, in the hope of reaching the materialistic within the realm of harmony, as well as outside versus inside the sense and its combination, this part of the school had been implemented to its personnel levels and resulted the "practice of materialism and acknowledgement."
      Chapter VI <Taigu School''s educational philosophy poetry>: Han Chinese loved poems so as Taigu School was no exceptional. Poetry to its education comprised the feature for cultivation and the fortitude of emotion. They did not only appreciate poetry; by chances of the gathering of scholars created volumes of poetry, they gradually developed a unique theory of poetry. First, the trend was based on the purport of the character; the character was the gift and pertained by everyone. Yet, only to dedicate the sincerity could be noted by the world where the dynamics is common in the ancient and modern poems. Consecutively it derived its "blending theory of the temperament to the poetry." Secondly, in the point of the existence of gods and spirits in the mind of humans, poetry is an outpouring of people, therefore poetry not only affirmed the value of folk songs, but also opposed to the entry of documentary poetry. Claiming that good poetry shall leave readers inspired space and senses; thus deriving its "blending theory of senses into poetry through appreciation.” In the end, it is to implement the theory in the creation. Taigu School thought different literatures were in different era and mustn’t promote the old time and denounce the contemporary. In the process of creation, announcing the talent and the practice was the consistency in deliberating good poetry. A good poetry shall not be constrained by the cadence standard. The Confucian-oriented Taigu School from its education point considered the senses of poetry shall be the aim in writing poetry, thus potentially influenced students with its subtle effect. It derived its "creation theory of blending the meaning in poetry."
      Chapter VII "Summary:" Missionary activities of Taigu School rush ended when the Jia Qing dynasty surrendered during the break out of Japanese War. Although in the long history of academy, it had been neglected; its educational philosophy could be implemented in the Five Education, which has its tremendous reference value to today’s education. Secondly, due to constraints of the era, Taigu School faced different problems in generations were not the same which caused conflict or inconsistency in between. The overall evaluation to the difference will be commented. The final thesis provides significance and the development of the research and comments are on the insight and expectation.
    顯示於類別:[中國文學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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