|其它题名: ||Taigu school and the educational philosophy research|
|作者: ||楊奕成;Yang, Yih-Cherng|
|关键词: ||清代;太谷學派;教育思想;儒學民間化;劉鶚;老殘遊記;Qing Dynasty;Taigu School;educational philosoph;Folk-oriented Confucianis;Liu, E|
|上传时间: ||2011-12-28 18:43:43 (UTC+8)|
Taigu School is the emergence of late Qing dynasty, its devotion to the Folk-oriented Confucianism is account for the ultimate contribution; where the folks in the disturbance society, suffered the pain of expatriation; Taigu School however was a precious stabilizer for the era. It was a great influence to the later civilian lectures. The thesis angled from the "educational philosophy," in research of Taigu School from its southern sector to the north and south sector formation. In searching how Taigu School disseminated Confucianism through the foundation of Cottages when especially after the incidence of the North sector’s experience in Hongyashan event; how they took up the mission in dissemination of lecture and explanation, further in constructing a set of ideas on Taigu School Educational Philosophy in the time of a precarious political difficulties. The outline of the chapters is descripting as following:
In this thesis are seven chapters, ChapterI<Preface>: Lu Xun''s assessment of Liu E''s" Travels,” stated: “Author’s belief, seen insight." This had inspired my motivation to research, in reaching to explore the purpose of Taigu School Philosophy. Furthermore, deliver an elicitation of Taigu School Research Summary in the accordance to the analysis of the collected works and thesis. In the end is to establish the scope, theme and methods of the study by the original inscription of "Taigu School testament;" supplemented relevant information, reflection and dialogue in display the principal of Taigu School Education.
Chapter II, "The Origin and Development of Taigu School>: Taigu School had passed on from the Master Zhou Taigu and had been for four generations. Since the Republic of China, it continued to be unjustified for the divert emphasis of each leader of the time. Hence, it is introduced the life and the development of the School and witness Taigu School through various actions to show its continuity of philosophy and innovation in the order of Master Zhou Taigu , the second generation "Return to the North" Zhang Ji Zhon, "Preacher in the South" Li Gon Xi, the third generation "Connecting to the North Sector” Zhu Yuan, “ Protraction of the South and the aid of the North" Jiang Wen Tian, "Accomplishment and Association Sectors" Huang Bao Nian, “Foundation Subsidy” Liu E, the fourth generation "Uphold Doctrine" Lee Tae Je, "Publication Description" Liu Da Shen, etc.
ChapterIII, <Relationship between Establishment of Cottage and Extension of Confucianism> : Li Gon Xin’s “Longchuan Cottage," Chu Yuan''s “Yang Meng Tong,” Jiang Wen Tian''s “Longxi Cottage," and Huang Bao Nian’s " Returning Groups of Cottage.” They took on the responsibility of allocating the legacy in one hand, and carried the mission for lecturing, thus passed on the school to generations. On the other hand, making efforts in spreading words of Confucianism in elaborating the principal; the chapter is in focus of deliberation and the difference from traditional four primary Cottages in its significant establishment of history. Secondly, in the discussion of how Taigu School unfolded and achieved the purpose of dissemination by elaborating the spirit of Confucianism with its diverse lecturing styles fully.
Chapter IV < Ethical Education Concept>: The Five Cardinal Confucian concept has always been valued and implemented in concrete life. Taigu School is a Folk-oriented Confucianism, it has deeply influenced through its elaboration and application, moreover in conducting the school of thought for distribution among the middle and lower class folks. First, Taigu School apprehended the inherent human nature, the non-existence, re-committed to constantly maintain the inherent virtue, and furthermore enriched the virtue over its population. It derived of its "Ontology of rendering to the virtue and humanity;" then, the world was based on human as a principal; therefore the desire would be demonstrated as the rule of the world, however, reserved with its courtesy to scrutinize the desire; thus solidifying its rationalism to achieve a harmonious state. This derived its " reconcile theory in between the world rule is as human desire.” Other than that, familial devoutness and fraternal duty is what Confucianism emphasized. Taigu School students proclaimed to students to understand their health condition and maintain the health to reveal the inseparable bond. By means of realizing familial devoutness to the children is as the world to its folk. Hence the ruler shall administer the virtue in reinforcing to the folks. Once in democracy, the folks would sense the assimilation of identity. Consequently, it derived its “shift the familial devoutness to the loyalty as the theory of practice." In the end, Taigu School declared to students the ultimate theory is to practice, which shall not become unpractical and lead to a corruptive useless means. It derived the "theory of unified management."
Chapter V <Taigu School cognitive educational philosophy>: During the time of Qing Dynasty, the philosophical and the empirical study were replaced by the experience and verification. The committed Taigu School thought about how to integrate knowledge and ethics to benefit lectures and to assist students to absorb and practice. First, they must assure all things were intrinsic to Chi, so the passion to the world is natural, and then combine the Chi and material devices in response to the challenge of times. Additionally, under the influence of Song Confucianism, regarded that all things were intrinsic to Chi was a misconception, they considered to maintain and vary the Chi in resulting the theory of "the nature of Chi and the temperament of the world." Then, I myself understand the body of humans is solitary the right to its usage without ownership, so the necessary commitment to the cultivation of body and life should be devoted in order to comprehend the attitude to life, the state of security when facing death and unfortunate. Taigu School conducted its philosophy in lecturing students to maintain health with life, audio-visual words, religion, and social perspectives. Subsequently it derived the "bonded theory of life and virtue.” In the end, in the hope of reaching the materialistic within the realm of harmony, as well as outside versus inside the sense and its combination, this part of the school had been implemented to its personnel levels and resulted the "practice of materialism and acknowledgement."
Chapter VI <Taigu School''s educational philosophy poetry>: Han Chinese loved poems so as Taigu School was no exceptional. Poetry to its education comprised the feature for cultivation and the fortitude of emotion. They did not only appreciate poetry; by chances of the gathering of scholars created volumes of poetry, they gradually developed a unique theory of poetry. First, the trend was based on the purport of the character; the character was the gift and pertained by everyone. Yet, only to dedicate the sincerity could be noted by the world where the dynamics is common in the ancient and modern poems. Consecutively it derived its "blending theory of the temperament to the poetry." Secondly, in the point of the existence of gods and spirits in the mind of humans, poetry is an outpouring of people, therefore poetry not only affirmed the value of folk songs, but also opposed to the entry of documentary poetry. Claiming that good poetry shall leave readers inspired space and senses; thus deriving its "blending theory of senses into poetry through appreciation.” In the end, it is to implement the theory in the creation. Taigu School thought different literatures were in different era and mustn’t promote the old time and denounce the contemporary. In the process of creation, announcing the talent and the practice was the consistency in deliberating good poetry. A good poetry shall not be constrained by the cadence standard. The Confucian-oriented Taigu School from its education point considered the senses of poetry shall be the aim in writing poetry, thus potentially influenced students with its subtle effect. It derived its "creation theory of blending the meaning in poetry."
Chapter VII "Summary:" Missionary activities of Taigu School rush ended when the Jia Qing dynasty surrendered during the break out of Japanese War. Although in the long history of academy, it had been neglected; its educational philosophy could be implemented in the Five Education, which has its tremendous reference value to today’s education. Secondly, due to constraints of the era, Taigu School faced different problems in generations were not the same which caused conflict or inconsistency in between. The overall evaluation to the difference will be commented. The final thesis provides significance and the development of the research and comments are on the insight and expectation.