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    Title: 《二拍》道德與性研究
    Other Titles: The study of morality and sexy in "Erpai"
    二拍道德與性研究
    Authors: 蔡鄢如;Tasi, Yan-Ru
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國文學系碩士班
    呂正惠;Li, Cheng-Hui
    Keywords: 凌濛初;二拍;道德;;Ling Mengchu;Erpai;morality;Sexy
    Date: 2011
    Issue Date: 2011-12-28 18:43:26 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 論文提要內容:
    繼馮夢龍的《三言》之後,凌濛初的《二拍》也是明代擬話本小說的代表作之一,《二拍》內容上反映了當代市井生活,塑造出商人、妓女、僧尼、士人等眾多人物形象,透過故事的內容反映出當代面向,因此本論文以「《二拍》道德與性研究」為題,藉由分析故事中各類人物所表現出來的道德與性,以了解凌濛初個人思想與晚明的關係。本篇論文將人物表現分為道德與性兩分面探討,道德部分細分成德與敗德兩項,性方面藉由故事內容的安排去整理各階層人物對於性的態度,希望能以另一種角度去了解凌濛初與當代的關係。
      第二章為探討士人階層。道德方面,士人階層原屬於社會中的知識分子,由於身分關係必須恪守儒家道德規範,但在《二拍》中雖然不乏有道德的士人代表,但也有不少篇幅追求功利、好賭等負面形象的人物描繪;在性方面,士人階層較多耽溺聲色的著墨,除了士人不再是道德高尚的情節安排,對於女性貞節的看法也有了體諒不性失節的態度,在性欲方面也有相當程度的描寫,藉由性欲的展現表達出真情使然。總而言之,《二拍》中的士人階層不僅展現出凌濛初對於傳統道德的追求,但也在時代的洪流中,有了因應當代的思惟變化,並且在男女情愛上認同自由追求,這也反映出凌濛初身為士人對於晚明的一種反思。
      第三章為探討商人階層。到了明代,商人階級地位提升,而《二拍》中也多有以商人為主角的故事內容,在道德方面,成德部分可看出商人多有儒家道德的展現,如待人誠信,幫助他人、經商有法等,都可展現出商人不再只有錙銖必較的形象,也塑造出商人良善的一面。在性方面的態度上也多有著墨,從《二拍》中的故事中也可看出商人對於性的態度不同於傳統士人的嚴謹。
      第四章為探討僧道。僧道人物形象在《二拍》中是相當突出的一部分,原應嚴守清規戒律,卻在凌濛初的筆下呈現為虎作倀的一面,扮演著與宗教戒律相違背的角色,在道德上,失德貪財,在性方面,無視色戒,因此在諸多犯忌的背後,也形成了《二拍》內容安排上的特殊意義,也反映了明代時期的獨特文化與作者的思維。
    也多有著墨,從《二拍》中的故事中也可看出商人對於性的態度不同於傳統士人的嚴謹。
      第四章為探討僧道。僧道人物形象在《二拍》中是相當突出的一部分,原應嚴守清規戒律,卻在凌濛初的筆下呈現為虎作倀的一面,扮演著與宗教戒律相違背的角色,在道德上,失德貪財,在性方面,無視色戒,因此在諸多犯忌的背後,也形成了《二拍》內容安排上的特殊意義,也反映了明代時期的獨特文化與作者的思維。
      第五章為探討女性部分。女性在《二拍》中也是著墨突出的一環,古代女性彰顯道德偏向自身的貞節展現,因此將道德與性合併討論。在《二拍》中女性可分類為娼妓、寡婦、閨閣少女與已婚婦女四類,娼妓女子雖然社會地位卑下,但凌濛初筆下卻多具有情有義的品格,並且大多也已從良為依歸;寡婦因為傳統道德的拘束,必須為丈夫守身來表現自身的道德,而凌濛初則在故事內容中表達出自身的看法;閨閣少女則表現出重視婚戀自由,也肯定在真情之下的欲望;已婚婦女也可看出在貞節的部分有凌濛初個人的思想在其中。
      第六章為結論部分。凌濛初的《二拍》可發覺到晚明思潮的影響,《二拍》中不論是對於道德的呈現或者是性欲的描述,都具有時風之先的意味,因此《二拍》在文學史上是具有其獨特的價值。
    After following Feng Menglong’s “Sanyan”, Ling Mengchu’s “Erpai” is also a Ming Dynasty novel to be representative of one of the word. Content of ”Erpai” reflected the life of people at that time. Ling Mengchu writted businessmen, prostitutes, nuns, scholars, and many other character. The content of the story reflected Ming Dynasty. The dissertation will take ” The Study of Morality and Sexy in “Erpai” as main idea. By analyzing various story characters has shown the morality and sexy. Make me understand that thinking of Ling Mengchu and his personal relationship with the late Ming Dynasty. This paper will figure into the morality and sexy performance in “Erpai”. The two points of morality is good and bad and organize a variety of characters'' attitudes towards sex. Hoping to get to know another point of view of contemporary Ling Mengchu.

       The second chapter is about the scholars. In the morality, Scholars are intellectuals in society. Because their identity ,so they had to comply with the Confucian ethics. Although there are many ethical scholars in “Erpai”, there are a lot of space to pursue material gain, gambling and other negative images of the characters portrayed. In the part of sexy, More scholars is lust. Scholars no longer be representative of moral. Ling Mengchu for women also had different views and in sexual desire also had a considerable degree of description. These sexuality based on love. All in all, the scholars in “Erpai” represents not only traditional moral of Ling Mengchu‘s pursuit, but also express their thinking changes. “Erpai” is a reflection for the late Ming of Ling Mengchu.

    The third chapter is about the merchants. The Ming Dynasty, the status of merchants raise. There are many stories of the business as the lead story in “Erpai”. The merchants had Confucian ethics in “Erpai”.It was not only the stingy side of the business, but also there were the goodness merchants in “Erpai”. From “Erpai” in the story can also be seen traders'' attitudes towards sex different from the traditional scholars of the rigorous.

    The fourth chapter is about monks. Monk characters in “Erpai” is a very prominent part. Monks should comply with rules and prohibitions, but monks Ling Mengchu described is the evil side. They played the role of breach of discipline in “Erpai”. Monks like money and women. These evil monks are the special significance of the arrangement of contents in “Erpai”. It reflects the unique culture of the Ming Dynasty and the author''s thinking.

    The fifth chapter is about female. Women in “Erpai” is also a prominent part. Ancient women''s morality is their chastity, so morality and sexy of women merger will therefore be discussed. The women in “Erpai” can be classified as prostitutes, widows, unmarried girls and married women. Although the lowly social status of prostitutes, but they are kind-hearted. Ling Mengchu express their views for the widow. Unmarried girls Ling Mengchu described value on free love. Description of married women contains personal Idea of Ling Mengchu.

    The sixth chapter is Conclusion. Ling Mengchu’s “Erpai” affected by the Ming Dynasty. “Erpai” in literary history is a unique value.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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