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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://tkuir.lib.tku.edu.tw:8080/dspace/handle/987654321/74441


    Title: 臺灣民間社團與非營利企業之發展及其特色 : 以「臺灣科學振興會」及「主婦聯盟生活消費合作社」為討論案例(1930-2010)
    Other Titles: Development and characteristics of Taiwanese social associations and non-profit enterprises : a comparative study on the formosan association for advancement of science and the Taiwan homemakers union consumer cooperative(1930-2010)
    台灣民間社團與非營利企業之發展及其特色
    Authors: 李永志;Lee, Yung-Chih
    Contributors: 淡江大學歷史學系碩士班
    黃繁光
    Keywords: 臺灣科學振興會;臺灣主婦聯盟生活消費合作社;臺灣非營利組織;社會運動史;社會企業;公民社會;The Formosan Association for Advancement of Science;The Taiwan Homemakers Union Consumer Cooperative;Taiwanese non-profit organization;history of social movement;Social Enterprise;civil society
    Date: 2011
    Issue Date: 2011-12-28 18:40:36 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 隨著日本政府引進西方現代化理念,臺灣近現代非營利組織的發展,其歷史尚不滿百年,臺灣本島人在世界民族主義潮流下,從島內臺中設立私立中學,及外有日本東京的「大正民主」風潮衝擊下,開啟了臺灣文化、社會運動史的序頁。
    「臺灣科學振興會」是一個完全根源於這塊土地,在1930年的日治時代與其他社會、文化運動團體,基於相同的民族主義浪潮,標舉了臺灣科學人的自主性意識而興起的團體--從「臺灣理工學會」而「臺灣省科學振興會」而至「臺灣科學振興會」,經歷八十年,在沒有經濟背景(如信用合作社或財團法人基金)下,艱苦地推動會務,現在雖然元老會員們陸續辭世,後起的會員與理監事們仍然老當益壯,期待繼續服務國家社會,這種臺灣精神是值得珍惜與發揚的。尤其是在目前社會諸多唯利是圖的現象中,老前輩科學家們追求「真」理,而輔以「善、美」的價值表現,更是彌足珍貴。「臺灣科學振興會」是臺灣最早的本土性科學人團體,也是目前中華民國碩果僅存的綜合性科學團體,象徵著臺灣現代化開始的「活化石」非營利組織,它的存在,實有特殊的時空意涵。
    「臺灣主婦聯盟生活消費合作社」也是根源於這塊土地的社團,在1987年的解嚴時代,一群家庭主婦有感於社會型態的急遽變遷,她們身為社會的一份子,不能再坐視生活週遭的種種環境病態、教育缺失。於是以「勇於開口,敏於行動,樂於承擔」自許,決心從自己做起,來改善環境,提升生活素質,1989年成立「財團法人主婦聯盟環境保護基金會」。又自1992年起,開始規劃結合環境與生產的綠色消費模式,以「共同購買」運動號召參與。至2001年底,成立全國性的「臺灣主婦聯盟生活消費合作社」,以環境守護、節制消費及支持有機農業為訴求的新型態合作社。
    這是兩個差異很大的非營利組織,例如時代相差近60年,成員也有相對男、女比例的偏向--前者偏男性,後者偏女性;目標功能不同--前者偏學術理論,後者偏經濟社會層面;時代的精神也不同--前者偏現代主義,後者偏後現代主義;面對危機不同--前者偏老化收縮,財務又很艱難,後者則偏急速擴張,財務又得心應手。但也有許多同質的因素,例如啟發的背景都與日本社會有關,並根源於臺灣本土的感情,以及關懷臺灣的議題,比較這兩個團體的成立及發展,再與其他營利、非營利組織的歷史發展作出相關統計,我們可以看到臺灣非營利組織發展的歷史梗概,及其「社會運動」精神的演變特色。
    Modern non-profit organizations in Taiwan did not begin to flourish until the Japanese introduced Western ideas of organizational culture. During a period when world nationalism was on the rise, Taisho Democracy era created immense debate and upheaval in Tokyo, Japan in general; thus,were created the opportune moment for Taiwanese cultural and social awareness.

    The Formosan Association for Advancement of Science is an organization formed exclusively on the land of Taiwan. Its establishment was a direct consequence of the 1930s social movement in Taiwan, when certain nationalistically conscious Taiwanese persons strived to promote nationalistic awareness among “men of science.” Their achievement was the foundation of what is currently “Formosan Association of the Advancement of Sciences.” For eighty years, this association has been in operation despite without stable and secure financial support by affluent institutions; and,even though,many of its founding members have passed away, new members have always strived to serve country and society with unwavering dedication. The scientists who opted to found this association honored their pledge to pursue for truth, virtue and beauty are a rare bunch in any time or era. The Formosan Association for the Advancement of Science is the earliest Taiwanese academic society, and the only surviving association comprised of multiple academic disciplines. This association is a living symbol of the beginning of the Taiwanese modernity and non-profit organization. It historic presence is of especial significance in Taiwanese history.

    The Taiwan Homemakers Union Consumer Cooperative is also an association rooted in Taiwanese society. While Taiwan was still under martial law in 1987, a group of housewives decided to respond to the rapid change which the Taiwanese society was experiencing, and took educational and environmental matters into their own hands. They pronounced brave slogans such as “dare to speak, quick to act, and strive to bear” to stir social awareness of their cause, and founded the Homemaker’s Union and Foundation in 1989. From 1992, they began to publish a series of propositions that called for consumer awareness on environmentally friendly industrial production reforms, with slogans such as “co-buy” to lead their initiative. In 2001, the Homemaker’s Union pushed for the establishment of a national co-op group called the “Taiwan Homemakers Union Consumer Cooperative,” of which cause was to promote a new form of cooperative consumer group that values environmental protection, restrains consumption, and supports organic agriculture.

    The two non-profit organizations mentioned above form a spectacular contrast: their time-frame is sixty years apart; their gender disparity cannot be more extreme, with the former mostly male, and the latter female; their aims and functions are different, with the former primarily dedicated to science and theoretical aspects, while the latter focused mostly on economic and social matters; the zeitgeist from which the two organizations have sprung individually cannot be more different, with the former modernist, and the latter taking up a post-modern directive; and most interestingly, the former tends to be an aged bunch with a contracting membership and difficult financial fundamentals, while the latter has an ever expanding membership base and healthy financial statistics. Yet there are also homogeneous qualities between the two. For example, the rise of both associations is related to the Japanese response to social problems, and is derived from a deep sentimental attachment to the Taiwanese society and issues particular to the Taiwanese society. By comparing the two associations historically, and in respect to relevant historical and statistical data of other non-profit organizations, we can find the historical progress in Taiwanese non-profit organizations, and identify their practical and metaphysical role in promoting social change.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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