|摘要: || 京劇是我國戲曲藝術的集大成者，受時代影響，百年來歷經輝煌與落寞，卻始終能延續香火，這全因不斷有人投入其中，擔起傳承的重責。其中，曹復永作為臺灣第一代京劇薪傳者，恰為舊時代藝術在新時代發展的代表。曹復永逾五十年的藝術生涯，歷經京劇的沒落與再興，並在京劇被列為國家藝術的氛圍中成長。但是，京劇自國家藝術的身份中解脫時，亦是它面臨新時代考驗之時，曹復永作為復興劇團的領導者，以傳統京劇為己任，不斷尋找京劇在新時代的發展性，並致力於薪傳工作，讓這項藝術得以延續。然其貢獻始終因低調的個性，未獲群眾的認識。小生是我國戲曲藝術中，獨特的一門行當，但始終不如老生、旦角般受觀眾喜愛。自清末民初以來，梨園普遍缺乏京劇小生。文革時期，臺灣小生更成為此行當延續的命脈，曹復永身為京劇小生的傳承代表，其重要性自不在話下，兼且他以小生身份長期擔任公家劇團團長，亦屬難得之事。本文以口述歷史研究出發，著手採訪曹復永與部分相關人士，紀錄曹復永五十多年來的演藝活動與為人處事，輔以報刊新聞，客觀呈現曹復永在表演藝術與面對大陸京劇的觀點，最後再藉此闡述曹復永在各方面的表現、貢獻。|
Beijing Opera has epitomized the art of Chinese dramas. Though having gone through times while experiencing decades of glory and decadence, Beijing Opera still passes on to the next generation all along. The main reason is that numerous people have devoted in Beijing Opera and shouldered the task of heritance. Amongst them, Tsao Fuyong, being the very first generation that passes on Beijing Opera in Taiwan, represents the significance of old time art developing in a new era. Tsao’s art career has lasted for more than 50 years, throughout which he underwent the decline and revival of Beijing Opera. He grew mature in the aura in which Beijing Opera was ranked as National Art. However, once Beijing Opera extricated itself from National Art, it had to face challenges from the new era. As the leader of Fu Hsing Opera Troupe, Tsao Fuyong took traditional Beijing Opera as his own duty, constantly pursuing its development in the new era while dedicating in passing on the tradition to make this genre of art able to last. Nevertheless, due to Tsao’s all-time low profile, his contribution hasn’t been widely acknowledged.
Xiaosheng（小生） is a unique role in the art of Chinese dramas, yet it never receives the popularity as laosheng or danjiao does. Since the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China, it has been common for Beijing Opera troupes to lack xiaosheng. During the Cultural Revolution, xiaosheng in Taiwan had a critical place in continuing the line of role. Standing for the inheritor of xiaosheng in Beijing Opera, Tsao’s importance could never be overlooked, not to mention that it’s rare and commendable for him to be the chief of a public drama troupe as a xioasheng.
The author adopts the method of oral history by interviewing Tsao Fuyong and several related objects, trying to note down Tsao’s performances and his attitude towards dealing with people or situations. Articles from newspapers and journals are used in addition, hoping to present objectively Tsao’s perspectives upon performing arts and Beijing Opera in China. Finally, Tsao’s performance and contribution in all aspects will be discussed and elaborated.