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    Title: 應用兩階層規劃於提升臺灣廢主機回收率之研究
    Other Titles: A study on increasing recycling rate of waste desktop computers by subsidy via bi-level programming in Taiwan
    Authors: 許珀銜;Hsu, Po-Hsien
    Contributors: 淡江大學管理科學研究所碩士班
    時序時;溫于平;Shih, Hsu-Shih;Wen, Ue-Pyng
    Keywords: 多階層規劃;廢電腦回收;消費者補貼費率;KKT轉換;0-1非線性規劃;模糊趨近法;Multi-level programming problem;waste desktop recycling;subsidy;Recycling and treatment fee;KKT conditions;0-1 nonlinear programming;Fuzzy approach
    Date: 2011
    Issue Date: 2011-12-28 18:18:16 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究利用二階層數學規劃模 (Bi-Level Programming) 模型解析台灣地區廢主機回收費率制訂的問題以提升回收率。逆向回收物流受到整體經濟情勢活絡或蕭條的影響,而回收率隨之波動,並造成環境保護工作缺失。因此我國透過行政院環保署成立回收基金管理委員會 (簡稱基管會) ,對製造商或進口商 (責任業者) 課徵處理費用,並補貼回收處理廠以鼓勵回收作業,期盼降低環境汙染並達資源的有效利用。
    就高階目標而言,係以社會福利系統的立場考量: (i) 期望回收率最大,以降低廢棄物污染的機會; (ii) 行政費用比率最小,以促使回收體系有效率的運作;以及 (iii) 補貼費率比最低,以促進回收處理業者有效運用產能。就低階之回收處理業者而言,則期望利潤最大。兩者目標衝突,又相互影響,因此利用兩階段規劃模型決定一個最適的回收處理費率。
    此兩階層非線性規劃問題較為複雜,為簡化求解過程以及不增加問題的複雜度,利用KKT最佳化條件 (KKT Optimality Conditions) 轉換以及變數替換,將此模型轉換為一個以高階為主的0-1 非線性規劃問題 (0-1 Non-Linear Programming Problem)。另為進一步了解不同管理意涵,利用Shih et.al (1996) 所提出之模糊趨近法 (Fuzzy Approach) 轉換為一個低階數學規劃模型求解並作比較。分析結果發現,提升台灣廢主機回收率,業者付出的收集成本高低,比調整行政費用比率及補貼費率更具激勵效果。其次,回收率與處理業者補之單位收集成本呈正相關,當處理業者收購價格越高時,回收率越高。另外,當原物料的價格越高時,回收處理業者的收入會越好,如此將有助於提高資源回收處理的意願。最後,KKT轉換法較模糊趨近法需要稍高的補貼費率,但可獲得稍高的回收率。以上分析結果將有利於環保署未來制訂回收政策之參考。
    This study attempts to decide a recycling subsidy decision so as to improve the recycling rate of waste desktops in Taiwan through a Bi-Level Programming (BLP). The reverse logistic is influenced by recession or depression of macroeconomic which affects the recycling rate and environment protection. Recycling Fund Management Board (RFMB) in Environmental Protection Agency, ROC Government has been established for controlling waste materials by setting up the recycling and treatment fee to recycling industries for increasing recycling rate and decreasing environmental impact.
    The upper-level decision unit is based on the viewpoint of social benefits: (i) Expect to have highest recycling rate to reduce the possibility of waste pollution; (ii) Lowest administrative cost ratio to enforce the operation of the whole recycling system; and (iii) Lowest subsidy ratio to improve the productivity of the recycling industries. The lower-level’s is the recycling industries which tries to maximize profits for their recycling operations
    The model is a nonlinear BLP and difficult to solve, and we transform the model into a single-level nonlinear programming problem through two method. First, use KKT optimality conditions, and then the transformed problem is a 0-1 non-linear programming problem by variable substitution. Second, through fuzzy approach, the program is transformed into a lower-level nonlinear programming problem. These two approached are compared for a better understanding of managerial control. We found out that the recycling rate is more depending on the acquisition cost than administrative cost and subsidy. The higher recycling ratio comes from higher acquisition cost. The higher revenue of recycling industries comes from higher raw material prices, in which recycling motivation is encouraged. The KKT optimality conditions needs more subsidy than fuzzy approach, but get a higher recycling rate. The results will be beneficial to tariff setting on recycling desktop computers in Taiwan in the future.
    Appears in Collections:[管理科學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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