面對企業相間互競爭激烈及全球市場經營模型的劇變，如何做好有效的存貨管理以降低相關成本或增加利潤，已成為企業主要的追求目標。存貨的維持與控制，往往會影響企業資金調度的靈活性，甚至關係到企業的營運作業。供應商可藉由提供延遲付款的優惠來吸引零售商訂購更多的或品。在此延遲付款期間，零售商收到貨品時不需要立即付款，也不用支付任何利息，並可以利用此期間的銷貨收入賺取利息，一旦付款期限到期時，若零售商仍有貨品尚未出售，則需負擔庫存貨品的資金積壓成本。因此，如何在管理存貨過與不及中取得均衡點，已成為決策者重要的考量之一。 本文主要探討信用交易且允許缺貨的經濟訂購量存貨模型。文中包含四個章節，第一章說明研究動機與目的、文獻探討及研究架構三部份。第二章主要探討供應商提供二選一信用交易的付款方式給零售商，並探討當發生缺貨時，顧客願意等候欠撥的存貨模型。第三章延伸第二章的研究，將兩種延遲付款方式改為只有一種延遲付款方式，零售商的延遲付款優惠與訂購量有關，建立最適的零售商的存貨模型。對於本研究所建立的兩種存貨模型，我們分別利用代數方法求得最適解存在的充要條件。接著，建立演算法以利求解，並舉例說明求解的過程與做敏感度分析。第四章提出本研究的結論和未來研究的方向。 Face of firm fierce competitions and drastic changes in the global market business model. How to do effective inventory management to reduce the costs or increase profits has become a major goal to pursue.Inventory of maintain and control often affect the cash flow flexibility of enterprise even though operation of the business. Supplier offers permissible delay in payments to attract attraction retailer order more items. During the trade credit period, retailer does not have to pay when receiving the products, and can use the sales revenue to earn interest. When the trade credit period is due, retailer has to pay interest for the products still in stocks. And, the delayed payments would produce capital opportunity cost for the supplier. Therefore, how to obtain the equilibrium point in inventory has become one of the important considerations.
Economic order quantity inventory models with trade credit and allowable shortage are developed in this paper. Chapter 1 involves the motivation and objective of this thesis. In this chapter, literature review about relative research papers is also included. In chapter 2, we established an inventory model with two-part trade credit terms and allowable shortage. In Chapter 3, we extend model for Chapter 2, we established an inventory model with allowable shortage, and assumed that supplier offers an order-size dependent permissible delay in payments. The necessary and sufficient conditions of the existence and uniqueness of the optimal solutions for the two models are shown. In addition, an algorithm is provided to determine the optimal solution for each model. Numerical examples and sensitivity analyses are presented to illustrate the theoretical results. Chapter 4 the conclusion of this thesis and future research directions are proposed.