Since the purpose of game theory in the use of mathematical models that simplify the complex interaction in reality, it provides participants criteria to choose the best strategy. However, the eccentric nature of prisoner’s dilemma in game theory is that due to pursuing the advantages of the player’s own self-interest, each player adopts a dominant strategy as equilibrium and it leads both players getting fewer payoffs compared to choose a dominated strategy.
We conducted a classroom experiment by using experiment method to examine the theory and reality application of prisoner’s dilemma. The purpose of this paper is not only to observe how people choose the strategy in the game, but also to analyze the background of participants, including gender, school and studied courses, to further explore the factors effecting on strategy difference.
The results showed that the probability of chooing to betray was higher than it of choosing to cooperate, but the strategy was made by probabilistic mechanism, not in line with the equilibrium of prisoner’s dilemma, and participants don’t choose dominant strategy. School and gender in all participants do not affect their choice of strategy, but Mathematics II studying in all participants has impact on betrayal behavior. Moreover, to analyze the interaction of participants’ background, it was found that participants in the interaction of gender and school have significant differences on betrayal behavior. Surprisingly, we found the proportion of participants choosing betrayal who had studied Math Ι, Math II and economics is lower than that of participants who never had studied the courses, and the result does not coincide with the previous finding (Frank, Gilovich & Regan, 1993) that students majoring in economics consider their own interests and adopt a higher proportion of betrayal and studying economics inhibits the cooperative behavior.