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    Title: 囚犯兩難賽局的理論與實驗 : 從教室觀點
    Other Titles: Theory and experiment of prisoner's dilemma : from point of view of a classroom
    Authors: 王怡心;Wang, I-Hsin
    Contributors: 淡江大學國際商學碩士在職專班
    蔡政言;Tsai, Jeng-Yan
    Keywords: 賽局;囚犯兩難;實驗;Game Theory;prisoner's dilemma;experiment
    Date: 2011
    Issue Date: 2011-12-28 17:51:59 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 由於賽局理論的目的即在運用數學模式,簡化現實中複雜的互動關係,以提供參與者選擇最佳策略之準則,然而賽局理論中的囚犯兩難賽局之怪異性,在於參與者為了極大化自身利益而採行優勢策略,也就是達到均衡,導致雙方所獲得的報酬比採行劣勢策略較差。
    本研究利用實驗法進行教室實驗,以檢視囚犯兩難賽局在理論和現實之差異:觀察參與者的決策選擇並進一步探討參與者背景,包含性別、所屬學院和曾修習之課程對於決策差異之影響。
    實驗結果發現,雖然全部參與者選擇背叛策略的比例高於合作策略,但為機率式選擇和囚犯兩難賽局之均衡不同,參與者非一定選擇優勢策略。全部參與者性別和所屬學院對其選擇策略並不產生影響,然而是否修習過數學二則對選擇策略產生影響。此外分析參與者背景因素之交互作用,實驗結果發現參與者的性別與學院的交互作用對於選擇策略則有顯著差異。本研究發現,曾修習過數學一、數學二和經濟學之參與者選擇背叛的比例較未修習過課程之參與者低,此結果無法和Frank、Gilovich與Regan(1993)認為主修經濟學的學生者比較考慮自身利益,在囚犯兩難的實驗中採行背叛的比例較高以及學習經濟學抑制合作行為之研究結果一致。
    Since the purpose of game theory in the use of mathematical models that simplify the complex interaction in reality, it provides participants criteria to choose the best strategy. However, the eccentric nature of prisoner’s dilemma in game theory is that due to pursuing the advantages of the player’s own self-interest, each player adopts a dominant strategy as equilibrium and it leads both players getting fewer payoffs compared to choose a dominated strategy.
    We conducted a classroom experiment by using experiment method to examine the theory and reality application of prisoner’s dilemma. The purpose of this paper is not only to observe how people choose the strategy in the game, but also to analyze the background of participants, including gender, school and studied courses, to further explore the factors effecting on strategy difference.
    The results showed that the probability of chooing to betray was higher than it of choosing to cooperate, but the strategy was made by probabilistic mechanism, not in line with the equilibrium of prisoner’s dilemma, and participants don’t choose dominant strategy. School and gender in all participants do not affect their choice of strategy, but Mathematics II studying in all participants has impact on betrayal behavior. Moreover, to analyze the interaction of participants’ background, it was found that participants in the interaction of gender and school have significant differences on betrayal behavior. Surprisingly, we found the proportion of participants choosing betrayal who had studied Math Ι, Math II and economics is lower than that of participants who never had studied the courses, and the result does not coincide with the previous finding (Frank, Gilovich & Regan, 1993) that students majoring in economics consider their own interests and adopt a higher proportion of betrayal and studying economics inhibits the cooperative behavior.
    Appears in Collections:[國際企業學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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