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    Title: 從權力平衡理論分析歐洲聯盟對俄格戰爭之因應作為
    Other Titles: A study on responses of European Union toward the Russo-Georgian war under the balance of power theory
    Authors: 王朧慶;Wang, Lung-Ching
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    鄭欽模;CHENG, Chin-mo
    Keywords: 歐洲聯盟;俄格戰爭;權力平衡理論;柔性權力;EU;Russo-Georgian War;Balance-of-Power Theory;Soft Power
    Date: 2011
    Issue Date: 2011-12-28 17:16:35 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 後冷戰時期,國際間充斥著區域或國與國之間的衝突,包括種族、宗教、政治、準軍事部隊相互爭奪權力、領土、資源、獨立或尋求承認等問題。衝突的多元化對安全政策的制定造成可觀的影響,加上全球化使得國家疆界失去過去的重要性,因此建立與維持鄰近與其他地區的和平與穩定成為外交政策制定首要且必要的目標。除此之外,為因應新型態的衝突,不只需要有軍事力量的支持,也須要發展出「非軍事」工具因應之。
    為此,歐洲聯盟結合長期的重建與發展協助計劃,以及短期的軍事與非軍事能力,以因應衝突發生前與發生後的狀況與情勢。「共同外交暨安全政策」與「歐洲安全暨防衛政策」的出現可謂是歐盟在此方面的努力與結果。
    本文試圖以後冷戰時期的權力平衡理論瞭解俄格戰爭的發生,並解釋歐盟對俄格戰爭因應作為之意義。此外俄格戰爭的發生,為歐盟開啟了機會之窗,使歐盟能藉由歐洲安全暨防衛政策中的軍事與非軍事危機處理工具,證明其為歐洲安全環境中重要的行為者,以及其對安全事務的影響力。以權力平衡的理論而言,假使歐盟能成功地處理俄格之間的衝突,便能夠證明並提升其在歐洲安全結構中的地位與影響力,藉此制衡俄羅斯與美國,維持權力的均衡分配。
    從俄格戰爭中不難發現,美國極力推動北約東擴是導致該地區緊張局勢的導火線,而歐盟在格魯吉亞問題上,表現出的態度明顯與美國有極大的出入,這是因為歐美的國際關係理念存在原則差異。冷戰後,美國憑藉其超優勢地位,於國際舞台進行單邊主義與強權政治,推行「非友即敵」的外交政策,處理國際爭端方式不是動用武力,即是實施制裁。但相反地,歐盟重視多極發展與集體安全,其強調解決爭端時,應以對話與合作替代武力制裁。另外,歐盟深知,若要擺脫美國霸權控制,就必須在國際舞臺上展現歐洲國家之外交獨立性,突顯出「歐洲區域價值」。
    歐盟的歐洲安全暨防衛政策為以一系列合適的政策工具,執行危機處理任務。然而必須瞭解的是,政策所指的危機處理不只是面對政治危機的發生或軍事衝突的爆發的因應作為,更重要的是處理在歐盟的戰略空間內所發生的危機。危機處理的因應作為包括外交人員的部署、經濟政策工具、治安或行政人員的派遣、甚至於戰鬥部隊的運用,但這些政策工具通常是同時並用。以此觀點而言,面對俄格戰爭的發生,歐盟之因應作為包括衝突預防、危機處理與穩定措施等三個階段。
    以歐盟對於俄格戰爭的因應作為而言,不論是在衝突預防、危機處理、或是衝突後的穩定措施等方面,雖然有詳密的計劃與快速實施的能力,然而就成效而言,卻只能算是差強人意。由此能夠瞭解國家在軍事與外交方面的力量及手段雖然不一定能夠達成安全政策所設定之目標,但仍具重要地位。經濟力量與經濟政策工具必須配合軍事力量與軍事政策工具的補足,才能夠達成既定之目標,也就是軟權力尚需要硬權力的輔助。
    In the post-Cold War era, the international environment is filled with conflicts between regions or states. Diversification of the conflict has significant influence on the making of security policies, coupled with the globalization, the importance of state and its boundary have lost. Consequently, to construct and to maintain the peace and stability of neighbouring and other area becomes the first and necessary goal for security policies. In addition, in response to new types of conflicts, it is not enough to use military support alone to cope with, the "non-military" tools are needed as well.
    To this end, the European Union combines with long-term reconstruction and development assistance programs, and short-term military and civilian capabilities to cope with the situations before and after conflicts. The emergence of "Common Foreign and Security Policy" and "European Security and Defense Policy" can be described as the EU''s effort and result in this regarding field.
    This article attempts to understand the occurrence of the Russo-Georgian War under the Balance-of-Power theory in the post-Cold War era, and to observe the EU’s response and its meaning. Furthermore, the Russo-Georgian War has opened a window of opportunity for EU to prove its capacity as a important security actor. In the view of Balance of Power, if the EU can successfully deal with the Russo-Georgian War, EU will be able to prove and improve its position in the European security environment, and to balance Russia and the United States, in order to maintain a balanced distribution of power.
    As EU’s response toward the Russo-Georgian War, no matter in the regard of conflict prevention, crisis management, or post-conflict stabilization measures, although the meticulous planning and rapid implementation capabilities are proved, but it can only be regarded as unsatisfactory. Thus, it can be understood that the military power and diplomatic measures of state may not always attain to the goals of security policies, but its substance endure. Economic power and economic policy tools must complement the military power and military policy tools to be able to reach the established goal, which represent the soft power still need hard power’s assistance.
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