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    題名: 風險分析在歐盟食品安全管理體系中之實踐與挑戰
    其他題名: The practice and challenge of risk analysis in the EU food safety management system
    作者: 李成鈞;Lee, Chen-Chun
    貢獻者: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    苑倚曼
    關鍵詞: 風險社會;風險分析;預防原則;歐盟;食品安全;risk society;Risk analysis;Precautionary principle;European Union;Food Safety
    日期: 2011
    上傳時間: 2011-12-28 17:16:09 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 德國學者貝克認為現代科技的發展,存在許多科學上的不確定性,也為人類社會帶來許多新的風險,這些風險具有一種「反省性」(reflexive)的特質。過去的現代化觀念是對於舊有社會的變革,也可稱為「簡單式現代化」。目前人類社會是一種充滿現代風險的「風險社會」(risk society),正在經歷一種「反省性現代化」,源自於人類在工業與科技發展上的副作用,也可視為風險社會的自我對抗。

    食品是人類賴以生存的物質基礎,食品安全不但關係到人類的身體健康和生命安全,也關係到國家及社會的穩定與發展。在科技發達的今日,人類的飲食條件日益優越,食品的種類以及製造的過程,較以往多樣化且繁雜。隨著經濟全球化和食品工業的進步,國際上的食品貿易迅速發展,也為人類帶來了更多食品安全的風險,因此,與食品貿易及食品安全相關的風險管理措施,逐漸受到世界各國政府的重視。

    美國國家研究委員會(NRC)首先於1980年提出一套風險分析的架構,包含「風險評估」、「風險管理」及「風險溝通」三個步驟,後來為國際食品安全標準委員會(CAC)、世界貿易組織(WTO)及歐盟所採用,可視為一種在食品安全管理方法上的國際標準。

    雖然世界各國逐漸採取風險分析為食品安全之管理方法,但在管理原則上卻存在差異,歐盟採取較嚴謹的「預防原則」(precautionary principle),大西洋對岸之美國與加拿大則是採取「科學證據原則」(principle of science evidence),此種差異造成歐盟與美加在對外貿易上發生許多爭端;另一方面,歐盟也面臨風險溝通之內部挑戰,在面對現代科技所帶來的食品安全風險時,如何取得公眾的信賴,維持「客觀風險」與「專家治理」間的平衡,成為歐盟食品安全管理之重要課題。
    The German sociologist Ulrich Beck suggested that the development of modern technologies contain numerous scientific uncertainties that may bring many new risks to human societies. These risks have a characteristic of “reflexivity”. In the past, modernization was viewed as a revolution of the old society, and is therefore called “simple modernization”. Current human societies are filled with risks. The modern “risk society” is undergoing a form of “reflexive modernization”, its origins is based on the side effects of human industrial and technological developments. Reflexive modernization can be seen as a “self-confrontation ” with the effects of“risk society”.

    Food is the basic element that human depends on for survival. Food safety not only concerns the safety of human health and lives, it also affects social and national stability and development. The modern world with its advanced technologies is improving upon the environments for the production of foods and beverages. The variety and processing methods of food is unprecedented and increasingly complex. With the globalization of economy and improvements of the food industry, international food trade is rapidly developing. However, these developments also bring more risk to people in terms of food safety. Hence, governments around the world are placing significant importance on relevant risk management measures for food trade and food safety.

    The American National Research Council (NRC) first recommended a set of Risk Analysis infrastructure in 1980. The Risk Analysis system involved three steps, namely “risk assessment”, “risk management” and “risk communication”. These steps were eventually adapted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC), the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the European Union (EU), and can be seen as an international standard for food safety management systems.

    Although governments worldwide have gradually adopted risk analysis systems as a means of managing food safety, differences in management principles still exist. The EU adopted a stricter “precautionary principle”. On the other side of the Atlantic, the US and Canada adopt the “principle of scientific evidence”. Such differences have led to many disputes on foreign trade between the EU and US and Canada. At the same time, the EU also faces the internal challenge of risk communication. When faced with increased risks in food safety brought about by modern technologies, they must find out means to maintain public trust while maintaining the balance between “objective risk” and “expert systems”. These are important topics of food safety management in the EU.
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