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    Title: 歐盟共同海運政策下複合運輸發展之研究
    Other Titles: The study of the EU sea transportation
    Authors: 陳瑋純;Chen, Wei-Chun
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    陳麗娟
    Keywords: 歐洲聯盟;海運服務業談判小組;複合運輸;歐盟共同海運政策;海運服務;European Union;Negotiating Group on Maritime Transport Service (NGMTS);multimodal transportation;EU common maritime policy;maritime transport service
    Date: 2011
    Issue Date: 2011-12-28 17:15:59 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:   歐盟的共同海運政策發展分為三個時期,未發展階段、起步階段、共同海運發展階段。1958年歐洲經濟共同體成立時,並未將海運正式納入共同交通政策,直到聯合國定期船運費同盟管理規則公約(United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Code of Conduct for Liner Shipping)訂定後,歐盟通過1979年第754號規章後,歐盟對外一致發表聲明也象徵向共同海運政策邁進。直至1980年代為完成內部市場計劃,希望內部團結一致,歐盟擬定海運發展時間表,分別訂定了1986包裹法案(1986 Package)、分階段開放沿海航行權與內陸運輸等。歐盟共同海運政策未來的發展策略主要朝提昇海運品質與競爭優勢這兩目標邁進。

    海運業有其特殊性質,無法只由單一國家管轄,尚須接受國際層面的規範,目前最重要的國際規範為世界貿易組織(World Trade Organization, WTO)中的服務貿易總協定(General Agreement on Trade in Service, GATS)。因海運行業特殊的性質,所以將海運納入服務貿易總協定,藉由GATS體制的規範,達成貿易自由化與減少貿易壁壘。WTO為了使海運服務業能更自由化,於1994年由海運服務業談判小組(Negotiating Group on Maritime Transport Service, 簡稱NGMTS)召開協商會議,討論海運服務業的新相關議題。單一海運服務已無法滿足現今運輸業的需求,複合運輸為近年來海運協商的新議題與談判重點。雖然談判的進程緩慢,但未來談判方式將維持原先的多邊要求與回應,輔以複邊要求的模式進行。

    本論文將探討歐盟共同海運政策的發展演進,佐以WTO服務貿易總協定下的海運服務業規範原則與海運服務業談判小組協商情況及未來可能的談判趨勢。歐盟從中如何兼顧其自身利益及經貿的穩定成長,分析目前歐盟海運市場的發展現況,以及發展海運市場對歐盟所造成的利益與衝擊,以作為我國海運市場提昇競爭力的借鏡。
    The development of the EU Common Maritime Policy is divided into three stages: initial stage, growth stage, and Common Maritime Policy. The European Economic Community was established in 1958, maritime transport policy was not incorporated in Common Transport Policy. After the establishment of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Code of Conduct for Liner Shipping, the EU enacted Regulation (EC) No. 754/1979 and promulgated it with one voice. It also symbolized that the EU sea transportation policy was approaching to Common Maritime Policy. In order to achieve internal cohesion, the EU set up a timetable for the maritime development in 1980 to complete internal market plan. The EU established 1986 Package Act, cabotage, inland transport. The future developmental strategy of the EU Common Maritime Policy is to enhance competitive advantages and quality of maritime transport.

    The jurisdiction of maritime industry is not held by one state but international regulations. The General Agreement on Trade in Service (GATS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) is the most important regulation for maritime industry. Due to the uniqueness of the maritime industry, maritime transport was incorporated in the GATS to accomplish trade liberalization and reduce trade barriers. In 1994, the Negotiating Group on Maritime Transport Service (NGMTS) was formed by WTO to discuss new issues about maritime transport service and improve liberalization of maritime transport service. A single maritime policy is applicable to current transport industry. Currently, the negotiation of maritime is focus on multimodal transport. Though the negotiation is in slow progress, the NGMTS still works on initial request and offer, and plurilateral requests.

    This thesis works on the development of the EU Common Maritime Transport Policy by discussing maritime transport service, contents of the negotiation, and the future development. From this study, it analyzes the present condition of the EU’s maritime market, and advantages and disadvantages for EU. The successful experience of the EU’s Maritime Common Policy could be the model of the maritime market in Taiwan.
    Appears in Collections:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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