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    題名: 西班牙青少年失業及就業政策
    其他題名: Policy on teenagers' unemployment/employment in Spain
    作者: 李冠諭;Li, Kuan-Yu
    貢獻者: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    趙美盈;Chao, Mei-Ying
    關鍵詞: 西班牙失業;青少年;社會排除;就業政策;Unemployment in Span;Teenagers;Social Exclusion;Employment Policy
    日期: 2011
    上傳時間: 2011-12-28 17:15:27 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 全球經濟籠罩著不景氣,西班牙就業狀況越來越低瀰,尤其是肩負著國家重責大任的年輕人,失業率卻比其他群體甚劇,造成社會莫大的隱憂;同時,一個社會倘若無法提供年輕人機會,也將導致人力資源的浪費,影響一國的經濟建設和社會發展步伐。正值工作年齡的年輕人不再積極找工作,自動退出亦或是遭到勞動市場排除,西班牙人稱這批新的失業年輕人是「Ni-Ni世代」( ni estudiar y ni trabajar ),意即沒有在學校受教育,也沒有正式工作,更沒有去接受職業訓練培訓,必頇依靠父母生活的青年人。

    西班牙為歐盟會員國之一,失業不僅是自身的問題,還與其他會員國休戚與共。為對抗失業情況,已同意歐盟所提供的就業之共同決策,其指導條例將影響國內就業方面政策,必須調整原本的方向,而一定程度的配合甚至遵守歐盟的共同政策。在西班牙,社會保障制度向何處去,一直是公共政策探討的焦點。對西班牙來說,積極的勞動市場為另一個新的途徑,由過去消極的失業救助邁向積極的就業政策轉變,將失業保險制度與職業訓練機構更緊密連結在一起,逐漸由福利的提供轉向就業的提供,使青少年能快速地重返就業市場,免於被社會排除。

    以長久深受失業所苦的西班牙為探討,藉以釐清造成青少年失業問題的可能面向。對此,西班牙政府該如何挽救國內青年的失業現象,以期能有效改善現階段所陎臨的窘境,因為最終一國的經濟增長與是否能穩定就業息息相關。
    While the economic crisis storms throughout all the nations worldwide, employment condition in Spain goes from bad to worse; especially of those who takes a bunch amount of responsibilities for the public, teenagers’ employement
    rate in Spain severely higher than other groups of age, which cause a great secret worry in the society. Meanwhile, if a society cannot offer opportunities to the teenage’s, it would also lead to a unesserary surplus of human resource, which could have a bad effect on economy construction and social development. In Spain, teenagers who passively look for a job or quit a job whether voluntaryly or not, are called by a byword "ni estudiar y ni trabajar", which means a person who neither attends to school education nor has a regular job, even nor accepts any before-career-training, and needs to rely on his/her parents for living.

    As one of the members of EU, unemployment problem not only occurs in Spain but also in other EU member countries. In order to resolve the current unemployment situation, Spain accepted the employment resolution offered by EU, whose instruction regulars would change its domestic employment policy and adjust its original principle; besides, Spain also obeyed the co-policy regulated by EU in a certain level. In Spain, the development of social welfare security system has always been a key point discussed in public policy agenda. However, to Spain, an aggressive labor force market will be an advantage to the policy which changes from passive unemployment rescue to aggressively offering employment resolution program. The policy closer connects unemployment insurance system with before-job-training together, and gradually transfers welfare-providing to job-providing, which makes teenagers quickly re-enter job market and helps them free from social exclusion.

    By taking Spain, whose unemployment rate has long been a problem, as an example, we can clearly discuss the probable aspects that cause the unemployment problem. Moreover, it’s also worth observing that how Spain governments improve current unemployment circumstances and how they effectively solve the embarrassing situation. After all, whether a country has a prosperous economy closely depends on whether it has a stable employment environment.
    顯示於類別:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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