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    題名: 波蘭半總統制研究
    其他題名: A study on Polish semi-presidentialism
    作者: 江芸萱;Chiang, Yun-Hsuan
    貢獻者: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    鄭欽模
    關鍵詞: 半總統制;小憲法;九七憲法;瓦文薩;府會關係;Semi-presidentialism;Little Constitution;Large Constitution;Walesa;Relationship between the President and the Prime Minister
    日期: 2011
    上傳時間: 2011-12-28 17:15:16 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 半總統制是一種在結構上介於總統制與內閣制之間的制度,在1990年代以前,被定義為半總統制的國家不多,因此它並未成為重要的研究對象。隨著前蘇聯共產集團政權瓦解,許多前共產集團的中東歐國家採用類似半總統制的憲政制度,半總統制儼然已成為第三個重要的憲政制度選擇。

    波蘭於1989年圓桌會議(Round Table Talks)後採行半總統制,其半總統制憲法經過多次修正,至今已穩定發展,在波蘭進行民主轉型期間,政治運作受到了憲法、政治人物、府會關係以及政黨體系的影響,使波蘭的半總統制在運作上呈現出相當多元的情況。波蘭半總統制的發展大致上能夠分成三個階段,第一個階段為1989年圓桌會議後的政治運作情況,第二個階段為1992年小憲法頒布至1997年憲法的制定,第三個階段則以九七憲法後的政治發展為主。

    三部憲法的內容很大程度影響波蘭半總統制的發展,總統的權力受到憲法的約束,進而影響總統在政治運作上的政治參予。本論文主要探討的問題在於(1) 半總統制的內容以及波蘭半總統制的類型;(2) 波蘭半總統制的發展背景為何;(3) 波蘭憲法對於其半總統制的影響;以及(4) 波蘭半總統制的實際運作情況。本文試圖從系統理論的角度研究波蘭半總統制的運作,並分析各階段的政治運作。
    Semi-presidentialism is a political system somewhere between the Presidentialism and the Parliamentarianism. When Duverger first defined the Semi-presidentialism as a political system in 1970s, there were still not many countries included theoretically in this category. After the collapse of the Soviet communist regime, some of the Central and Eastern European states adopted this arrangement. Gradually, the Semi-presidentialism has become one of the important analytical perspective in the political science field.

    After the Round Table Talks in 1989, Poland decided to adopted the semi-presidential Constitution which had been amended in 1989, 1990, 1992 and once again in 1997. So far, the Semi-presidentialism in Poland has been developed steadily., The development of its political system has been affected by the Constitution during the process of democratization in Poland, such as the volatile character of the Presidents, the party system and the relationship between the President and the Prime Minister. In general, there were three phases in the development of Polish Semi-presidentialism: (1) the period between the Round Table Talks in 1989 and the promulgation of the Little Constitution in 1992. (2) the period between the Little Constitution in 1992 and the Promulgation of the new Constitution in 1997. (3) last but not least, the period after the new Constitution in 1997.

    The above mentioned Constitutions imposed very significant influences toward the development of the Semi-presidentialism in Poland, and their revelent articles to some extent constrained the exercising of power by every president. In this thesis,the System Theory defined by David Easton was applied to analyze the developing process of Semi-presidentialism in Poliand. The main purpose of this thesis is to discuss the questions as: (1) the theory of the Semi-presidentialism and what kind of model fits the Polish Semi-presidentialism. (2) the background of the development of semipresidnetialism in Poland from 1989 to 2007. (3) the development of the Polish Constitution in terms of semipresidentialism. (4) the functioning of the semipresidentialism in Poland.
    顯示於類別:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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