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    Title: 法國文化遺產研究 : 以巴黎塞納河畔為例
    Other Titles: Cultural heritage in France : a study on the banks of the Seine
    Authors: 陳泯旻;Chen, Min-Min
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    苑倚曼;Yuan, Yi-Mond
    Keywords: 文化遺產;法國;聯合國教科文組織;歐盟;文化政策;cultural heritage;France;UNESCO;European Union;cultural policy
    Date: 2011
    Issue Date: 2011-12-28 17:14:47 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 法國向來以悠久的歷史和文化遺產聞名於世,自1830年法國設立史蹟視察單位(L’Inspection Générale des Monuments Historiques)和1962年的《馬樂侯法》等一連串法制創立後,國家對於文化遺產的保護更為完善。聯合國教科文組織在1972年《世界遺產公約》中對文化遺產即做出明確之定義,表示不管是歷史場所(Sites)、建築群(Groups of buildings)或是紀念物(Monuments),只要在歷史、藝術以及學術等方面具有顯著普遍價值(Outstanding Universal Value)之人類遺跡,皆可申請作為文化遺產。而所謂的顯著普遍價值意味符合世界遺產委員會所規定的世界遺產登錄標準,並可證明其真實性及完整性等,世界遺產為全人類共同的遺產,應當受到全世界人類共同的保護。二十一世紀的今天,隨著氣候變遷與人口爆炸造成環境的汙染日益嚴重,觀光活動造成的破壞使得各國愈來愈積極的想要保護自身的重要文物與建築古蹟,進而爭相的為許多文物建築申請成世界遺產,希望藉由聯合國的技術與資金幫助,能夠使其文化遺產接受應有的保護和修復。

    法國文化事務傳統上一直由國家中央集權管理,然而經過兩次的大普查以及文化遺產數量的大幅增加,文化部無法負擔如此巨大繁重的文化工作,便於1970年代開始進行去中央化(déconcentration)的手段,將文化事務的主權由中央下放權力至地方政府,在各地區成立地區文化事務辦事處(DRAC),並由區政府和其所屬的省分來進行密切的文化合作。1984年法國開始了「文化遺產日」(La Journée Portes Ouvertes)的活動,歐盟也於1991年將此活動推廣至歐洲各國,由理事會發起並由執委會贊助執行的「歐洲遺產日」(European Heritage Day),目的在於提升歐洲公民對於歐洲文化多樣性及豐富性的認知,並呼籲公民對於擁有多元民族的歐洲提高包容力,以及倡導保護文化遺產的重要性。

    France is renowned for its’ long-standing history and rich cultural heritage. Ever since a series laws like the Inspection Générale des Monuments Historiques created in 1830 and the Loi Malraux established in 1962, the protection of cultural heritage in this country is getting more and more complete. The World Heritage Convention, created in 1972 by UNESCO, defines the kind of cultural sites could be considered for inscription on the World Heritage List. The Convention indicated the Sites, the Groups of Buildings and the Monuments which are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, scientific or anthropological point of view, shall be considered as Cultural Heritage. And to conform to the outstanding value, meaning that the sites must meet at least one out of six criteria of Cultural Heritage to prove its’ authenticity and integrity. Climatic change and population explosion have made many kinds of pollution nowadays. The increasing damage caused by tourism has made a lot of countries take notice of self protection, especially at the landscapes and architectural properties, struggling to apply the World Heritage title for their sites. Through the technical and financial support of UNESCO, their cultural properties would have better restoration and conservation.

    The Cultural Affairs in France have been managed by the government in a centralized way for a long time. While the amount of the properties has been largely increased after two inventories, the Ministry cannot afford taking over such heavy works. Hence, the‘déconcentration’proposed in 1970, the central government released more power to the local government by establishing the DRAC. The cooperation and the development of the région and the département have become more detailed and prosperous. The event La Journée Portes Ouvertes was invented by Ministry of Culture in France since 1984. The purpose was to popularize the concept of protection of the French monuments and historic sites to the people. Soon after the project was internationalized under Council of Europe and united as European Heritage Day in 1991. It aims to promote the cognition of cultural diversity and richness to the European citizen; to appeal the tolerance of multi-nation and importance of heritage protection in Europe.

    From Notre-Dame to Eiffel Tower, from the Louvre to the Grand and Petit Palais, not only can we admire the breath-taking view, but also the evolution and history of Paris is able to be seen from the River Seine. Through the collaboration between the country and the city government, this cultural heritage continues its well conservation and restoration; meanwhile, thus to create some innovations and novel city projects into the classic atmosphere in Paris. The interaction of cultural heritage protection and city development are balanced by the related system and well education. This fusion of historical background and modernization truly made the River Seine the most visited cultural heritage of all.
    Appears in Collections:[Graduate Institute of European Studies] Thesis

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