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    Title: 德國推動再生能源政策與產業發展之研究
    Other Titles: The study of renewable energy policy and industry development in Germany
    Authors: 劉佩恆;Liu, Pei-Heng
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    郭秋慶
    Keywords: 德國;再生能源;再生能源法;風力發電;太陽能發電;Germany;renewable energy;Renewable Energy Policies;Wind energy;Photovoltaic
    Date: 2011
    Issue Date: 2011-12-28 17:13:43 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 石油、煤炭、天然氣等化石燃料推動人類社會發展,但隨著化石能源資源日漸枯竭、能源供應安全以及保護環境等因素的驅動,發展再生能源成為21世紀無論世界各國在政治、經濟、環境、科技等領域中的熱門話題。
    歐洲聯盟的27個會員國中,屬德國推行再生能源發展成果最為顯著。石油危機和車諾比核爆事件,以及德國居民環保意識高漲,使得德國政府開始積極改變其能源結構,找尋其他替代能源。2000年正式生效的「再生能源法」(Ernererbare-Energie-Gesetz,簡稱EEG),設定了德國能源與減碳的目標:至2050年再生能源占總能源消耗量的50%。2010年德國再生能源占全部能源供應已有9.4%的成果,是歐盟會員國中占比例最高。德國的風力發電和太陽能發電也因為政府扶持與企業認同,相關產業大幅成長,相當具有市場競爭力,目前德國風力發電產品的全球佔有率為46%,排名世界第一。
    40餘年來德國成功開發水力、風力、太陽能、生質能及地熱等再生能源,建立完備的再生能源相關法令成為其他國家效法的典範,也使其國內再生能源產業擁有良好的發展環境,吸引業者投入市場,讓再生能源相關的綠色產業因而躋身為德國強勢的出口工業之一,更創造出廣大的就業機會與商機。德國發展再生能源的成果使其不再全面依賴進口能源,保障國家能源安全,不僅達到德國人民對環保的要求,也負起大國對京都議定書的國際責任。本文以德國發展再生能源的經驗為例,提供台灣規劃再生能源發展策略之參考。
    Fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal and natural gas have played a significant role in the advancement of the human society. With the inching threat of fossil fuel depletion and concerns over energy security and the environment, renewable energy has become a much discussed issue in the making of government policies in areas ranging from politics and economy to environmental protection and technology.
    Germany, among the twenty-seven European Union member states, has delivered the most outstanding result in the development of renewable energy. Driven by lessons learnt from the oil crisis and the Chernobyl nuclear accident along with the rising awareness of environmental protection among the German people, the German government has spared no effort to restructure the country’s energy sources and develop alternative energies. In 2000, the Renewable Energy Sources Act (Ernererbare-Energie-Gesetz, EEG) was passed, in which the country’s energy and carbon reduction goal is set – renewable energy should account for half of the total energy consumption by 2050. In 2010, Germany’s renewable energy share in energy consumption reached 9.4%, a figure second to no other EU member states. Germany’s wind and solar power generation have also experienced significant growth on account of generous support from the government and industries. This has endowed the country’s wind-power related industries with a competitive edge which has been utilized to help Germany become the world’s largest wind-power product producer, with a global market share of 46%.
    Over the past forty years, Germany has written many success stories in the development of renewable energies including hydropower, wind power, solar power, biomass and geothermal power. Germany has formulated a complete and well-structured legal system for renewable energy and has become a model of success sought after by many fellow countries. With a sound business environment for renewable energy, the sector has been thriving and prospering and has come to become one of the strengths of Germany’s export, creating a large number of job and business opportunities. As a result, Germany has successfully rid itself off the dependence on imported energy and safeguarded its national energy security. This development not only meets the German people’s call for environmental protection but also serves as a symbol of the country’s effort to shoulder its share of responsibility outlined in the Kyoto Protocol. Using Germany’s renewable energy development as an example, this paper aims to shed some light on Taiwan’s planning of renewable energy and to provide localized suggestions based on the island’s unique political and environmental biology.
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