Since 1986, Vietnam has been transferring its closed socialist-planned-economy to an open capitalist economy, and working on the economical approach of the industrial development to become a new high-growth country in southeast Asia. Yet, the industrialization also created an economical gap between the different sections in Vietnam. And ever since the Vietnamese government untied its policy on population movement after its innovation, the labors could look for higher pay by moving. According to the census, there are 2,000,000 people moving out of their original provinces during 1994 to 1999, and during 2004 to 2009, it increased 63.4% as the moving population number grew up to 3,300,000. Within all parts of the country, the Southeast Region is the main in-migrating section. From 2004 to 2009, the net in-migration rate is 117‰, that means in every thousand people above 5 years old, there are 117 people from other provinces. On the other hand, the main out-migrating section is the Mekong Region, which holds -42.1‰ of a net out-migration rate. Furthermore, 97.1% of the population migrating out of Mekong Region go to the Southeast Region. Such movement of labors and the difference of economical development in these two parts are something requires further research and analysis.
To discuss the process of labor migration, economical development is the cause and labor inflow is the result. But this study suggests that the sustainable development of economy, the labor force plays a key role. Economical development mainly depends on the output of each industry. But in the production process, to input the factors of production is necessary, and labor force is one of the indispensable factors. Take the development of the Southeast Region as an example, the Southeast Region has grown into an export-oriented labor-intensive manufacturing and become the commercial center in Vietnam under the Vietnamese Government''s policy and enterprises’ investment. At the same time, the industrial development in the Southeast Region requires a lot of young workers, women workers also in need of employment. But in Vietnam, the size of the workforce and the participation rate of female labor are low in the Southeast Region. Southeast region lacks labor resources to develop industries, therefore, to input labor force which from other regions to help industrial development of Southeast Region is the key point. In Mekong Region, there is a large number of workers with basic skills transferred from agricultural department, which just could provide the necessary vocational skills to manufacturing in Southeast Region. Nevertheless, there’s a worry about a large number of young workers attracted by job opportunities in the field and enter the labor market employment, it may reduce the workforce to continue their education or to pursue further studies. Then the labor force of Mekong Region may stay in low-skilled level, and loss the opportunities to accumulate human capital. After economy boomed, export manufacturing of Southeast Region will face the pressure of rising production costs, the industries will be transformation. If the industries and labors of Mekong River still staying in basic skills, it will probably cause serious problem of unemployment.