|摘要: ||泰國首都曼谷及其周邊的數個府(Changwat)在過去三十年歷經快速發展，形成一個總人口達1,600多萬的曼谷擴張型都會區(Extended Bangkok Metropolitan Region, EBMR)，不僅在泰國的都市體系中具有顯著的首要性，也是整個國家進步的動力來源，其發展特徵與背景因素甚具學術研究與實務應用價值。本研究分別從(1) 人口變遷觀察都會區之形成；(2) 政府的投資政策及基礎設施提供；以及(3) 產業發展等三個面向，探討對曼谷擴張型都會區的發展及其首要性所造成的影響。|
自1970年以來，曼谷擴張型都會區的人口成長速度都高於全國及各個區域(分別為中部、北部、東北部和南部)，而人口過度集中加快了該都會區的發展。就曼谷擴張型都會區所包含的核心區曼谷市、內環區(包括Samut Sakhon、Nakhon Pathom、Nonthaburi、Pathum Thani和Samut Prakan等五個府)和外環區(包括Ratchaburi、Ayutthaya、Saraburi、Chachoengsao、Chon Buri和Rayong等六個府)等三環地帶的人口成長而言，內、外環區的人口成長相對快速，符合過去對都會區發展經驗的研究結果，即人口的成長隨著核心區的發展飽和而趨緩，並有人口外移的現象。此外，核心區的機能和產業等也外移至內、外環區，在挾著腹地廣大、基礎建設及交通運輸完善等優勢之下，吸引許多企業在此地區投資，而所創造的就業機會成為人口聚集的主因。
Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, and its surrounding provinces have experienced rapid development in the past three decades, and have shaped an Extended Bangkok Metropolitan Region (EBMR) which includes total population of 16 million. It means EBMR is not only dominates the urban system in Thailand, but also the driving force of the country''s progress. Its developmental characteristics and background factors are provided with academic research and practical application. This thesis was written from the three perspectives, which of (1) governmental policies, (2) population growth, and (3) industrial development, on the development of EBMR and its changing primacy.
Since 1970, the population growth rate in EBMR has become higher than four parts of the nation (they are central, north, northeast and south regions ), the excessive concentration of population in EBMR has accelerated its development. The EBMR is composed of three zones as follows: Bangkok as the core, the inner ring includes Samut Sakhon, Nakhon Pathom, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani and Samut Prakan, and the outer ring includes Ratchaburi, Ayutthaya, Saraburi, Chachoengsao, Chon Buri and Rayong. The population growth rate of the inner ring and outer ring are relatively rapid, as experienced in other metropolitan regions. While the population grew up and then decreased in the core, the phenomenon of emigration emerged. In addition, the functions and industries of the core may also move outside the inner ring and outer ring. Under such advantages of extend rural hinterland, and the improvement of infrastructure and transportation, many companies would invest in inner ring and outer ring, and create many employment opportunities that becomes the main cause of population concentration.
Since the acceleration of industrialization in the 1980s, the overall economic performance of Thailand has been remarkable. However, differences in development among regions still exist. Despite the government''s commitment to balance regional development, the economic output of EBMR still accounted for nearly 70% of Thailand in 2008, apparently showing the phenomenon of resources over-concentration. Inside EBMR, Bangkok’s type of industry has transformed to service industry, the inner ring has transformed to labor-intensive manufacturing, mostly are light industries, and the outer ring is based on higher value-added and highly polluting heavy industries, especially Chon Buri and Rayong are the two important locations for heavy industries in Thailand. Actually, EBMR may be regarded as a small-scale economy, its role in the Thai economy is very significant, but this case implies that the domestic regional development would be more imbalanced.