|Abstract: ||西元13世紀，玻利維亞原為印加帝國的一部分。1538年淪為西班牙殖民地，史稱上秘魯。1825年8月6日宣佈獨立，為紀念解放者玻利瓦爾取名玻利瓦爾共和國，後改為現名。1952年4月爆發人民武裝起義，民族主義革命運動（Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionaria）領導人帕斯·埃斯登索羅（Victor Paz Estenssoro）就任總統。此後，軍事政變頻繁，政局長期動蕩。但即便再民主化後，玻利維亞仍為世界上最貧困的國家之一，內部充斥族群問題，原住民權利低落，抗爭與動亂頻仍。|
Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire in 13th century. In 1538, it was a Spanish colony, known as the Upper Peru. On August 6, 1825, it declared independence, and commemorated the name of the Bolivian Republic of liberator Bolivar, later changed to its present name. In April, 1952, the outbreak of people''s armed uprising took place, Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionaria) leader Victor Paz Es-tenssoro became president. Since then, the country had undergone frequent military coups and political instability. However, even after the re-democratization, Bolivia remains one of the poorest countries in the world, and is filled with ethnic conflicts, the ignorance on indigenous right, and protests occuring frequently, all leaving the country unrest.
Bolivian people launched large-scale public demonstra-tions, strikes and built other road barrier, against the govern-ment for natural gas and water resources of the new neo-liberalism economic policies. In the coca issue, the government is unable to resist foreign intervention, so the public''s reliabil-ity declined. In Re-democratization era of Bolivia, the way of mass political participation had changed. Many issues emerged: mobilization in resistance and protest, indigenous cultural rights institutionalized, the new constitution referen-dum. This paper will discuss these issues to understand the changes after the re-democratization of Bolivia, and which democratic practice of participation the people prefer.