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    題名: The recent democratic development in Bolivia (1989-present)
    其他題名: 玻利維亞民主發展(1989至今)
    作者: 馮一凡;Feng, Yi-Fan
    貢獻者: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    葉浩
    關鍵詞: 玻利維亞;民主;參與;古柯;天然氣;水資源;憲政改革;Bolivia;Democracy;Participation;Coca;Natural Gas;Water;Constitutional Reform
    日期: 2011
    上傳時間: 2011-12-28 17:10:35 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 西元13世紀,玻利維亞原為印加帝國的一部分。1538年淪為西班牙殖民地,史稱上秘魯。1825年8月6日宣佈獨立,為紀念解放者玻利瓦爾取名玻利瓦爾共和國,後改為現名。1952年4月爆發人民武裝起義,民族主義革命運動(Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionaria)領導人帕斯·埃斯登索羅(Victor Paz Estenssoro)就任總統。此後,軍事政變頻繁,政局長期動蕩。但即便再民主化後,玻利維亞仍為世界上最貧困的國家之一,內部充斥族群問題,原住民權利低落,抗爭與動亂頻仍。

    玻利維亞民眾陸續發動大規模示威遊行、罷工封路等抗議活動,反對政府對天然氣與水資源進行新自由主義的新經濟政策。在古柯議題,政府無力抗拒外國干預使得民眾對政府的信賴度下降。再民主化時代的玻利維亞,其人民在政治參與的方式與焦點產生了許多改變:抗爭動員型態的改變、原住民文化權利落實,新憲法公投的過程。本論文將在這些面相進行探討,以理解玻利維亞民主化後進行的轉變,以及玻利維亞人民期待民主政治參與應該如何被實踐。
    Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire in 13th century. In 1538, it was a Spanish colony, known as the Upper Peru. On August 6, 1825, it declared independence, and commemorated the name of the Bolivian Republic of liberator Bolivar, later changed to its present name. In April, 1952, the outbreak of people''s armed uprising took place, Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionaria) leader Victor Paz Es-tenssoro became president. Since then, the country had undergone frequent military coups and political instability. However, even after the re-democratization, Bolivia remains one of the poorest countries in the world, and is filled with ethnic conflicts, the ignorance on indigenous right, and protests occuring frequently, all leaving the country unrest.

    Bolivian people launched large-scale public demonstra-tions, strikes and built other road barrier, against the govern-ment for natural gas and water resources of the new neo-liberalism economic policies. In the coca issue, the government is unable to resist foreign intervention, so the public''s reliabil-ity declined. In Re-democratization era of Bolivia, the way of mass political participation had changed. Many issues emerged: mobilization in resistance and protest, indigenous cultural rights institutionalized, the new constitution referen-dum. This paper will discuss these issues to understand the changes after the re-democratization of Bolivia, and which democratic practice of participation the people prefer.
    顯示於類別:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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