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    Title: 阿根廷正義黨制度化之研究(1946-2010)
    Other Titles: A study of the institutionalization of the justicialist party of Argentina (1946-2010)
    Authors: 吳亭慧;Wu, Ting-Hui
    Contributors: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    王秀琦
    Keywords: 正義黨;貝隆黨;政黨制度化;貝隆;梅南;基什內爾;費南德茲;Justicialist Party;Peronist Party;party institutionalization;Juan Domingo Peron;Carlos Menem;Nestor Kirchner;Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner
    Date: 2011
    Issue Date: 2011-12-28 17:10:25 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 阿根廷正義黨自一九四六年貝隆創立以來,遂成為阿根廷主要的政治力量之一,在面對整個阿根廷政治版圖的角力過程中,正義黨一直扮演著關鍵性之角色與地位。本文企圖透過歷史結構論的觀點,從一九四六年至二○一○年超過半個世紀期間,對正義黨組織運作過程進行爬梳,釐清各時期環境條件與人為制約的因素,探究正義黨勢力榮枯興衰背後的因果關係,冀盼歸納出正義黨之發展模式與特色,以及正義黨制度化發展進程所面臨的任務與挑戰。

    一九八三年前由於阿根廷軍人及文人政府交互執政的政治亂象,使阿根廷政黨體系呈現出複雜面相,由於缺乏穩定的民主政體與完善的法制結構,正義黨制度化發展歷程倍感艱辛與曲折。本研究中,阿根廷之民粹主義代表人物-貝隆與梅南總統皆屬於政治系統與正義黨中的強人領袖,基於對政黨組織功能的不信任,為確保個人權力地位的穩固而致力於抑制任何可能崛起與之抗衡的黨內新銳菁英,及削弱其他任何可能形成強大勢力之派系與團體,其權力的集中化有效地促成了扈從關係的建立;另透過酬庸進行恩庇網絡的建構,擴大其忠誠追隨者的支持與鞏固權力之核心領域,因此造就了組織鬆散且缺乏一致常規程序結構的正義黨,即使台面下集結了許多黨內的反對勢力,也深知其難有挑戰強權領袖的機會,正義黨遂而淪為領袖菁英操縱之工具。

    正義黨缺乏常規化與制度化的現象,除了造成政黨功能的弱化與內部效能成本增加,也導致了黨內派系林立互為爭奪權力的現象,二○○三年總統大選為阿根廷史上第一次正義黨由於派系的分裂,而允許同時推派三位貝隆主義候選人出來競選,在此同時,反對黨激進公民聯盟勢力依舊疲弱不振無法與之抗衡,因此,該次大選猶如正義黨內部選舉的競爭,選舉的結果造成正義黨內部權力之重組與再造,由基什內爾領導的勝利陣線脫穎而出成為正義黨主要權力核心。基什內爾政府有效帶領阿根廷脫離自二○○一年爆發阿國史上最嚴重的經濟危機後所帶來的社會動盪與經濟不景氣,經濟的復甦讓政治與社會秩序逐漸恢復穩定,因而促進了民主化之推動,讓正義黨制度化的進程更往前邁向一大步。

    為恢復政黨體系正常的運作與穩定,阿根廷自二○○七年費南德茲政府的帶領下,遂而逐步進行政黨法制結構的調整,不僅有助於正義黨制度化的建立,企盼阿根廷在推動更健全的選舉制度及強化尊重民主法治之民主國與法治國精神後,能夠落實更成熟之政黨政治,減少政黨內部派系分裂、小黨林立之失序現象,進而鞏固阿根廷民主化的根基。
    The Justicialist Party (PJ) of Argentina became one of the main political forces in Argentina since its founding by Peron in 1946. The Justicialist Party has been playing a pivotal role during the struggle in Argentine politics. Through the perspective of historical structure, this study is aimed to overview the process of organizational function, clarify the environmental and human factors that have constrainted the Justicialist Party in each period, inquire the causes and results behind the rise and fall of Justicialist Party during the period of over half a century from 1946 to 2010 in hope of reaching a conclusion regarding the development model and feature of Justicialist party and tasks and challenges it faced during the process of structural development.

    The political chaos during the intermittent military and civilian rules in Argentina before 1983 resulted in the complicated phenomenon of Argentine political party systems. The Justicialist Party lacked stability and comprehensive structure of regulation that exists in a democratic political system, thus, the process of structural development of the party was difficult and tortuous. In this study, the figures of Argentine populism –President Peron and Menem – could be classified as strong leaders in political systems and Justicialist Party. Due to the mistrust of organizational function of the party, the leaders tried to suppress any new elites from becoming political rivals as well as any other factions or groups that could become strong powers in order to ensure the stability of personal power and status. The centralization of their power effectively strengthened the process of ─bandwagoning∥; moreover, reward services were adopted to establish Patron-Client networks in order to expand the support of loyal followers and consolidate the core field of power, which resulted in a loosely organized Justicialist Party that lacked consistent structure of routinization of procedures. Even opposition forces that gathered under the table knew that there was little opportunity to challenge the authority of leadership; therefore, Justicialist Party became the instrument manipulated by leaders and elites.

    The phenomenon of lack of institutionalization and routinization of intraparty rules and procedures of Justicialist Party resulted in the weakening of party function and increase of internal efficiency cost, which also caused the phenomenon of struggle for power among factions on political stage. In 2003 presidential election, Justicialist Party permitted three Peronist candidates to run for the post for the first time in history as a result of factional divisions. At the same time, the weakening of The Radical Civic Union (UCR) could not constitute a balance against Justicialist Party, so that election became the internal competition of Justicialist Party after the loss of the largest opposition party. The election result caused the internal power restructure and reformation of Justicialist Party, and The Front for Victory(Frente para la Victoria; FPV)led by Néstor Kirchner became the core of main power within the party. The Kirchner administration effectively quelled the social unrest and led Argentina out of the economic depression caused by its most serious economic crisis of 2001 in history. The recovery of economy gradually reinstated political and social stability, which resulted in the promotion of democratization process and a step forward for the institutionalized process of Justicialist Party.

    Since 2007 under the leadership of incumbent President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, the regulatory structure of political parties has gradually been amended in order to maintain the operation of party function and stability. It is hopeful to see that the phenomena of serious disorder such as factional divisions and existence of small parties could be reduced and the party system of Justicialist Party could be more institutionalized after more comprehensive electoral system and respect for the rule of law as the guiding spirit of democracy are established in order to implement more mature and comprehensive party system and consolidate the democratic foundation of Argentina.
    Appears in Collections:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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