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    Title: 論查維茲二十一世紀社會主義理論與實踐
    Other Titles: Discourse in 21st century socialism in the practice and theory of Hugo Chávez
    Authors: 孔德惠;Kung, Te-Hui
    Contributors: 淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
    熊建成
    Keywords: 查維茲;委內瑞拉;二十一世紀社會主義;新自由主義;Hugo Chavez;Venezuela;Twenty-First Century Socialism
    Date: 2011
    Issue Date: 2011-12-28 17:09:12 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 50年代末期,卡斯楚在古巴發動革命成功的推翻了巴蒂斯塔政府並建立了一個社會主義國家,左派的革命運動也開始在拉丁美洲地區展開。筆者將此時的左派分之為傳統左派。80年代末期,國際上東歐遽變及蘇聯解體衝擊了拉丁美洲地區的左派運動,此時拉丁美洲左派已找不到未來的發展,並且認為在美國的打壓之下卡斯楚政權已搖搖欲墜。同時,在1982年開始拉丁美洲國家因受到進口替代工業化發展的政策導致爆發外債危機。拉丁美洲國家為了與國際金融組織貸款解決外債問題所以接受了國際金融組織所提供的新自由主義政策。但是新自由主義主張的政策並不利於拉丁美洲的經濟發展,最後在20世紀末期拉丁美洲爆發了三次的金融危機,而委內瑞拉也同樣地受到了嚴重的影響國內因此爆發了卡拉卡斯大暴動。因此拉丁美洲國家開始尋找一條替代新自由主義發展的路線。
    1998年查維茲當選委內瑞拉總統,查維茲在上任之後就公開的批評新自由主義、哥倫比亞計劃及美洲自由貿易區。查維茲的當選也成為了拉丁美洲新興左派崛起的代表。查維茲為改變拉丁美洲長久以來不公不義且貧富不均的社會問題,他在上任之後就進行了一系列的改革,希望藉由他的新政策能夠改變委內瑞拉國內的問題。之後,查維茲在2005年第一次正式提出二十一世紀社會主義理論。該理論的目標是以人為本、改善拉丁美洲地區長期以來處於低度發展的情況、解決區域內不公不義的現象及加強區域內一體化的發展。同時查維茲也強調他所提倡的社會主義的中心是公平、公正且正義的社會主義,不同於以往傳統的社會主義國家是以革命的方式來獲得政權。2004年查維茲更與卡斯楚共同提出了美洲玻利瓦替代方案來取代由美國政府所提出的美洲自由貿易區,查維茲更希望藉著每美洲利瓦替代方案來推動拉丁美洲一體化的發展。
    但近年來由於受到國際金融危機的影響,委內瑞拉經濟處於停滯發展的情況,這樣的經濟也影響到查維茲推動二十一世紀社會主義理念,國內也出現過反對的聲音。而美洲玻利瓦聯盟在拉丁美洲各國利益考量之下推動的並不順利。這樣的情況下查維茲政府必須改變其政策以此才能持續推動他的二十一世紀社會主義理論。
    In the late 1950s, Fidel Castro led a revolution to launch an attack to overthrow the Batista government in Cuba. After that, Fidel Castro established a socialist state. At the same time, the leftist revolutionary movement began to expand in Latin America. However, in the late 1980s left-wing power was affected by the international situation since they could not find the way out in the future. Besides, Latin countries broke out foreign dept crisis that the countries had to accept neo-liberalism policy which was made by developed countries. However, the policy did not benefit those countries’ economy. In the end of 1990s, there were three countries that broke out economic crisis, and there was the same situation in Venezuela, the economy also dropped. Therefore, Latin countries wanted to find a new policy to substitute neo-liberalism.
    In 1998, Hugo Chávez was elected as the president of Venezuela. His victory of the election represented new left wing power in Latin America. Chávez wanted to change the social situation which have been non justice. Therefore, he pushed reforms. In 2005, Chávez proposed Twenty-First Century Socialism. The purpose is to promote human rights, change the low developed situation in Latin America and integrate Latin America countries. For these reasons, Chávez and Fidel Castro founded The Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas.
    In recent years, due to the global financial crisis, Venezuela’s economy is in low development. The bad economy caused Chávez to push his policy hard. Moreover, Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America did not promote smoothly. Under such circumstances Chávez government must change its policies in order to continue to promote his theory of the Twenty-First Century Socialism.
    Appears in Collections:[拉丁美洲研究所] 學位論文

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