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    題名: 美國的石油戰略與2003-2008年伊拉克戰爭之研究
    其他題名: A study on US oil strategy and the war of Iraq, 2003-2008
    作者: 劉子驥;Liu, Zhi-Ji
    貢獻者: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
    王高成;Wang, Gao-cheng
    關鍵詞: 伊拉克戰爭;石油戰略;地緣政治;國家重建;Iraq war;Oil Strategy;Geopolitics;Nation Reconstruction
    日期: 2011
    上傳時間: 2011-12-28 17:07:01 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 美國的小布希政府在2003年發動了伊拉克戰爭,並對該地的地緣政治局勢造成了深刻的影響。本次戰爭是21世紀美國發動的第二場大型戰爭,也是美國以反恐怖為名的戰爭之一。但反恐並非其主要目的,一般認為反恐怖僅是藉口,真正的目的應是伊拉克豐富的石油資源。
    伊拉克乃是二次大戰後英國所成立的新國家,其目的是透過利用阿拉伯各部族與教派間的矛盾,使他們必須依靠外國勢力以維繫統治權,並為殖民帝國的石油戰略服務。而身為大英帝國繼承者的美國,不僅繼續利用此地複雜的地緣政治為其牟利,並且更進一步加強對中東地區的控以進一步控制中東的石油資源。
    美國此次對伊拉克發動的戰爭,由於無法證實海珊政府與恐怖份子間的聯繫,並且也未能找到任何海珊政權持有大規模毀滅性武器的證據,遂將目的改稱為在該國推行民主並重建伊拉克。然而由於美國低估了伊拉克複雜的宗派與民族衝突,直至2008年,伊拉克各方面的重建進度依然遲緩。在政治面,大選在缺乏健全公民社會的狀況下舉辦,使新政府的民意基礎薄弱,立法機關效率低落、腐敗橫行;安全方面,各派系的紛爭持續不斷,恐怖活動幾乎無日無之;經濟方面,由於政治與安全環境的惡劣,基礎建設重建遲緩,石油生產也無法回復以往水準。整體而言,重建中的伊拉克局勢仍在不斷惡化。
    小布希政府在伊拉克使用武力以執行其石油戰略,但結果只是使此地原本已極為複雜的地緣政治局勢更加混亂,而伊拉克的重建失敗更導致此區域的安全環境進一步惡化。若美國之後的善後處理不慎,則中東不僅無法繼續為美國的石油戰略服務,在將來更會成為美國沈重的戰略負擔。
    The Bush administration of the United States has launched the Iraq War on 2003, and caused a profound impact to the geopolitical situation of the Middle East area. This is not only the second large-scale war of US ever launched of the 21st century''s, but also the second war by the name of “Anti-Terrorism.” But generally believed that anti-terrorism is not its main purpose but only an excuse, the US’ real aim should be the rich oil resources of Iraq.
    Iraq is a new country established after the World War II by the British Empire, and its purpose was using the conflicts between Arabian tribes and Islamic branches, so they must rely on foreign forces to maintain the emirs’ regime, and serve for the oil strategy of colonial empire. As the successor of British Empire, United States not only continued to use the complex geopolitics here for its profit, but also strengthened the control of the Middle East area for the oil resources.
    But during this Iraq War, US could not find any evidence that the Saddam Hussein’s administration holding or making Weapons of Massive Destruction or the connection between Iraq and international terrorists, so US government turned to claim their purpose is to implement the democracy and reconstruct Iraq. But because the US government underestimated the complication of the conflicts between religion branches and races, so the reconstruction progressed slowly until 2008. In political side, the election was hold without a sound civil society, so the new government’s popular support was weak, legislature was also inefficient, and corruption was rampant. In security side, the factional strife and terrorism activities occurred almost endlessly. In economical side, because of the poor political and security environment, the infrastructure reconstruction progressed slowly, and the crude oil production could not be recovered to previous output. Overall, the situation of reconstructing Iraq is still deteriorating.
    The Bush administration used force in Iraq to carry out its oil strategy, but the result was making the extremely complex geopolitical situation here more confusing. And the failure of Iraq reconstruction led this area’s security environment to further deterioration. If United States makes any mistakes dealing with the aftermath, the Middle East area would not only serves the US oil strategy no more, but also becomes the heavy burden of US national Strategy.
    顯示於類別:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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