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    題名: 我國參與聯合國海洋法公約制度 : 困境與解決之道
    其他題名: R.O.C.'s participation in the system of United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea : dilemma and solutions
    作者: 林士茂;Lin, Shih-Mao
    貢獻者: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
    李大中
    關鍵詞: 聯合國;聯合國海洋法公約;臺灣;海洋政策;United Nations;Convention of the law of the sea;Taiwan;Ocean Policy
    日期: 2011
    上傳時間: 2011-12-28 17:06:50 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 隨著人類社會的進步與發展,與海洋的連結也愈趨強化,從毫無關連到相依相存,海洋已成為人類生活不可或缺的一部分。任何人類活動皆需一套基本原理原則以為準則,海洋事務亦不例外,發軔於歐洲各國之國際習慣,進而隨著西方勢力傳播至全球,隨著海洋事務廣且深的發展,各國逐漸有將既有習慣成文化以明確規範各國權利義務的想法。
    聯合國創建後,將國際法的編纂作為其發展目標,海洋相關議題即成為其核心標的。聯合國海洋法公約經過長達九年的冗長會議,最終在1982年12月10日通過簽字,並於1994年11月16日生效,海洋相關事務的框架性法律制度就此成形。由於海洋事務的不斷擴張,公約也相應的持續發展,包含關於執行1982年12月10日《聯合國海洋法公約》第十一部分的協定以及於執行1982年12月10日《聯合國海洋法公約》有關養護和管理跨界魚群和高度洄游魚類種群的規定的協定,因此成為公約不可分割之一部分。
    我國在國共衝突落敗退守臺灣後,國際地位日趨動搖,1971年聯合國2758號決議,更將中國代表權由我國轉為中共政府取代,從此之後我國國際地位一落千丈,不但邦交國數量大減,在國際組織方面更是難以維持。聯合國海洋法公約簽署於80年代,以我國當時之國際地位與主權之國際認定,自難以進行簽署或事後加入。
    以我國與海洋的密切關係以及與世界各國的連結,面對此種國際社會的共同規範自然無法自身於外,配合國際社會的運作或是走向孤立與制裁,熟優孰劣不證自明。但因我國特殊國際地位,目前仍不被大多數國家公開承認為主權獨立國家,難以直接加入公約的體系。我政府與學界為此提出不少替代方案,從單邊聲明遵從公約規範,到雙邊與多邊機制,甚至是不同加入身分與周邊國際組織的實際參與。
    但受國際政治的影響,各項可能解決方案目前大多難以有效施行。在外交與國際體系下因外在因素眾多不易達成,為避免無法加入公約而產生的困境,我國可從最能掌握之國內層面切入。在國內政策部分做好相關準備,不論是採取貼合公約內涵的規範行事,或轉變心態積極面對海洋事務,亦或是進行組織調整與資源配置,我國都仍有改善進步的空間。唯有掌握好我國能掌控的部分做好萬全準備,面對可能遭受之困境時,方能妥善應付不致遭受傷害。
    The connection between Humans and the ocean has strengthened with the progress and development of human society. Ocean becomes an indivisible element of human living. The operation of any human activity requires principles and doctrines; when it comes to ocean affairs, there is no exception. (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, UNCLOS) was initiated from the international custom in Europe; it later spread to the rest of the world with the expansion of the influence of the West. Since the scope of ocean affairs is becoming much wider and complex, the idea to turn the existed custom into regulations is discussed among nations.
    After the establishment of the United Nations (UN), to compile the International Law was set to its goal of development. Issues that are related to the ocean became one of the targets. The UNCLOS was endorsed by nations on 10 December 1982 and validated on 16 November 1994 after a nine-year long meeting of tardiness. The framework of law to ocean affairs was taking shape hence. With the expansion of ocean affairs, the content of the convention keeps developing. Including Agreement Relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 and Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks. Both of them become the indivisible part of the convention.
    Taiwan confronted an embarrassing status in the international society after the failure in Mainland. The Resolution 2758 admitted the People’s Republic of China as the only representative of China in the UN. Since then the international status of Taiwan experienced a dramatic decline and fall in numbers of diplomatic relations with other nations. The UNCLOS was signed in the 80s; due to Taiwan’s status back then it was tough to sign or join in.
    As a maritime state, Taiwan has obligations when participating in ocean affairs. Because of the special status quo of Taiwan, a direct participation in the convention has its challenge. Alternatives are proposed by the government and the academia, from the unilateral participation to the bilateral and multilateral systems, even join regional organizations as various identities.
    However, Taiwan’s current resolutions are not operated effectively with the influence of international politics. Compared to the dilemma aroused by the external complexity of diplomacy and international system, the breakthrough exists in the domestic. There are rooms for improvements in policies related to ocean affairs, domestic regulations that match the spirit of the UNCLOS, adjustments in governmental organizations and relocations of state resources. Only by a full preparation in the controllable scope can Taiwan handle properly and reduce negative effects when encountering the external impact.
    顯示於類別:[國際事務與戰略研究所] 學位論文

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