|摘要: ||承延10世紀開始,對於修道士修行就有以刻苦修行來淨化身心的方式 出現,但是從初期10世紀的團體修行,到14世紀初已轉換成個人式的修行方 式,不只開啟了靜默主義這樣新式宗教思想的蔓延,也深深影響長老西拉對 於靜默主義的思想與實踐方式。本文透過長老西拉的修行方式及思想進行對 靜默主義的研究與探討,並了解東正教為何能夠深植俄羅斯人的生活與心 理,還有靜默主義又為俄羅斯人民帶來什麼樣的影響。|
他被尊成為是沙漠教父的創始人,這和靜默主義的出現有密切的關連性,因 為,不論是沙漠教父與其追隨者,亦或是靜默主義的修道者,他們都有著共 同的修行理念和意志。直到約莫十世紀的時候,在拜占庭帝國時期的希臘地 區有座阿瑟斯山,這座山被東正教視為是聖山,也是靜默主義的重要起源 地。不論是沙漠教父的起源與阿瑟斯山都是對宗教領域的歷史影響甚多的事 件,文中我們也會進一步的去了解這些地區的發源與靜默主義的關聯性。
社會、經濟或是政治各個領域中都有著舉足輕重的地位。因此在宗教歷史中 占有一席之地的靜默主義,相對的對社會或是生活習慣有了決定性的改變。 因此透過對長老西拉的了解,能有助於對晚期的靜默主義;再透過東正教與 靜默主義的關係來看現在社會、宗教與政治的新演進。
From the early 10th century on, the Orthodox monks had to practice hard to purify their bodies and souls in order to be able to accept “the uncreated divine light” as a form of mystical communication with God. By that time there were already individual Orthodox adepts who did this practice both in the monastery and, more often, outside of it. In this sense the highest forms of Orthodox spirituality paradoxically at first glance came back to the world. This practice was named Hesychasm which means in Greek “profound silence”.
This study focuses on the life and thought of Older (in Russian: Starets) Siluan (1864-1938), one of the most outstanding Hysechasm followers in modern times. Siluan inherited the tradition of Russian startsy who played the role of spiritual masters and teachers in Russian society. Siluan had a dramatic life with many drastic turns and hardships. This also fits the pattern of Orthodox saint’s life.
In the 3rd century A.D. some there came into being in the desert Scetes in North Africa a tradition of ascetic monks who vowed to lead a life of hardships emulating Jesus Christ and this hetting nearer to God. Anthony the Great was the most famous representative of these so called Desert Fathers. Later this new practice spread into other countries, and in the early 10th century, it came to Mt. Athos in Northern Greece. That was the place where Orthodox monks (only males were allowed to enter Mt. Athos) practiced Hesychasm. Hysechasm’s most
important theoretician was St. Gregory Palamas who lived in the 14th century. Starets Siluan has also been practicing for many years at Athos mountain..
Apart from Siluan’s life and thought the author investigates the conceptual and methodological issues of Hysechasm and the latter’s relation to society. A special attention is paid to the political significance of Hysechast tradition and controversies around this issue in contemporary Russia.
When it comes to economics, educations, society or political issues Orthodox Church has always played an important role in it. The views of Siluan on Hesychasm provide important insights to the nature of Orthodox Christianity and its social nature.