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    題名: 俄羅斯對拉丁美洲政策之研究(1991-2008)
    其他題名: The study of Russian foreign policy towards Latin American countries (1991-2008)
    作者: 范辰維;Fan, Chen-Wei
    貢獻者: 淡江大學俄羅斯研究所碩士班
    彼薩列夫;Pisarev, Alexander
    關鍵詞: 俄羅斯;拉丁美洲;對外政策;地緣政治;國家利益;戰略關係;經濟合作;Russia;Latin America;Foreign policy;Geopolitics;National Interest;Strategic relation;Economic Cooperation
    日期: 2011
    上傳時間: 2011-12-28 17:03:53 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 過去在蘇聯時期,拉丁美洲地區曾被蘇聯視作與美國進行競爭的主要地區。蘇聯在拉丁美洲地區有過積極的滲透與輸出革命理念,希望扶植建立親蘇政權以增進對美戰略平衡。蘇聯解體後,俄羅斯新政府的外交路線採取親西態度,由於俄羅斯國內對於經濟的重建和修復,極度需要西方國家的援助,因此對外政策考量依然集中在對國內經濟的改革和國外資金的援助來做發展。因此對拉丁美洲政策一度在俄羅斯對外政策中被邊緣化。至俄羅斯第二任總統普京(Владимир Владимирович Путин)上台後,在對外政策方面進行全方位之外交路線,與世界各國發展的外交關係,強調俄羅斯現行外交非意識型態的對抗,發展多極世界的外交構想,開始逐步擴大俄羅斯的影響力。也自此開始,俄羅斯開始重視對於拉丁美洲的外交關係。俄羅斯政府高層多次出訪拉丁美洲,與拉丁美洲多國擴大了政治、軍事及經貿方面之合作。相較以往俄羅斯對拉丁美洲互動零散的狀況,俄羅斯已經開始慢慢增強了在美洲的影響力。
    在俄羅斯總統普京第二任期間俄羅斯面對多項問題,如東歐中亞發生的顏色革命及北約歐盟的雙東擴,俄羅斯的安全空間被壓縮,另因反恐戰爭的關係使俄美關係陷入矛盾。在拉美國家方面,俄羅斯注意到其逐漸成熟的且穩定的外交發展與國際地位,誘發俄羅斯對拉丁美洲的互動逐漸提高,不論在經濟、軍事或能源合作等方面,都有積極的作為。另一方面,拉丁美洲地區的反美浪潮升高,左派政府的上台,引起俄羅斯對拉美政策中的制美特點,這也使俄羅斯在加強與拉丁美洲國家的外交關係上特別值得研究。多數拉美國家如委內瑞拉、古巴和墨西哥對於俄羅斯重返拉丁美洲皆表示歡迎,此一現象傳達的訊息及利益釋出,對俄羅斯而言是戰略利益,或是經濟利益,皆有多層面的相互關係。綜述以上幾點,令人不禁猜想俄羅斯對拉丁美洲的戰略目標與對拉美政策構想其目標為何,並其所牽動的國際關係是否影響現今之世界體系。
    With a view to strategic competition during the Cold War period, Latin America had the pivotal geopolitical importance for the Soviet Union and the U.S.A. Not only did the Soviet Union infiltrate Latin America, but also preached revolutionary tenets there. Pro-USSR regime was urged by the Soviet Union as a means to counteract U.S. influence with reference to the viewpoints of strategic balance. After the Soviet Union toppled in 1991, Russian government took to pro-western attitude in terms of foreign policy. Meanwhile, Russia faced the problems of its economic transformation and reconstruction, which meant it needed economic assistance from western countries pressingly. For this reason, Russia foreign policy zeroed in on the domestic economy and the application of economic assistance so that the foreign policy towards Latin American countries was for a time marginalized. Not until the Putin’s second inauguration of 2004 did the Russian government begin multifaceted foreign policy--- a practical replacement for the ideological conflict in the past--- and delineate the framework of multi-polar international system. Putin also pointed out that Russian government was reassessing Russian-Latin relationship in the elevation to centrifugal link in frail fellowship. Unlike the past two decades ago, Russian government had expanded the sphere of influence in Latin America as a result of frequent visits to Latin American countries via superior officialdom, mutual cooperation on political affairs, military exchange on technical services, and reciprocal contact on economic basis.
    While Putin served his second term, there was tremendous change in his foreign policy. At the same time, Russia underwent through a great number of difficulties such as NATO and EU expansion, and color revolutions in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Under the threat of security space and fervent surge on anti-terrorist issue, Putin found it essential to reshape its relationship with U.S.A. and to strengthen the sphere of influence in the western hemisphere. It goes without saying that developing mutual relationship with Latin American countries of paramount importance to Russia’s national interest. On the other hand, the unremitting rise in anti-American sentiment in Latin America along with left-wing regimes which came to power provided a golden opportunity for Russia to balance American influence. Quite a few Latin American countries welcomed Russia’s return such as Venezuela, Cuba, and Mexico as well. A further and possibly more compelling point is that geopolitically speaking, Latin America is of much strategic interest to Russia. Therefore, Russia must reinforce political and economic interaction with Latin American countries.
    顯示於類別:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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