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|Other Titles: ||The study of Russian foreign policy towards Latin American countries (1991-2008)|
|Authors: ||范辰維;Fan, Chen-Wei|
|Keywords: ||俄羅斯;拉丁美洲;對外政策;地緣政治;國家利益;戰略關係;經濟合作;Russia;Latin America;Foreign policy;Geopolitics;National Interest;Strategic relation;Economic Cooperation|
|Issue Date: ||2011-12-28 17:03:53 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||過去在蘇聯時期，拉丁美洲地區曾被蘇聯視作與美國進行競爭的主要地區。蘇聯在拉丁美洲地區有過積極的滲透與輸出革命理念，希望扶植建立親蘇政權以增進對美戰略平衡。蘇聯解體後，俄羅斯新政府的外交路線採取親西態度，由於俄羅斯國內對於經濟的重建和修復，極度需要西方國家的援助，因此對外政策考量依然集中在對國內經濟的改革和國外資金的援助來做發展。因此對拉丁美洲政策一度在俄羅斯對外政策中被邊緣化。至俄羅斯第二任總統普京(Владимир Владимирович Путин)上台後，在對外政策方面進行全方位之外交路線，與世界各國發展的外交關係，強調俄羅斯現行外交非意識型態的對抗，發展多極世界的外交構想，開始逐步擴大俄羅斯的影響力。也自此開始，俄羅斯開始重視對於拉丁美洲的外交關係。俄羅斯政府高層多次出訪拉丁美洲，與拉丁美洲多國擴大了政治、軍事及經貿方面之合作。相較以往俄羅斯對拉丁美洲互動零散的狀況，俄羅斯已經開始慢慢增強了在美洲的影響力。|
With a view to strategic competition during the Cold War period, Latin America had the pivotal geopolitical importance for the Soviet Union and the U.S.A. Not only did the Soviet Union infiltrate Latin America, but also preached revolutionary tenets there. Pro-USSR regime was urged by the Soviet Union as a means to counteract U.S. influence with reference to the viewpoints of strategic balance. After the Soviet Union toppled in 1991, Russian government took to pro-western attitude in terms of foreign policy. Meanwhile, Russia faced the problems of its economic transformation and reconstruction, which meant it needed economic assistance from western countries pressingly. For this reason, Russia foreign policy zeroed in on the domestic economy and the application of economic assistance so that the foreign policy towards Latin American countries was for a time marginalized. Not until the Putin’s second inauguration of 2004 did the Russian government begin multifaceted foreign policy--- a practical replacement for the ideological conflict in the past--- and delineate the framework of multi-polar international system. Putin also pointed out that Russian government was reassessing Russian-Latin relationship in the elevation to centrifugal link in frail fellowship. Unlike the past two decades ago, Russian government had expanded the sphere of influence in Latin America as a result of frequent visits to Latin American countries via superior officialdom, mutual cooperation on political affairs, military exchange on technical services, and reciprocal contact on economic basis.
While Putin served his second term, there was tremendous change in his foreign policy. At the same time, Russia underwent through a great number of difficulties such as NATO and EU expansion, and color revolutions in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Under the threat of security space and fervent surge on anti-terrorist issue, Putin found it essential to reshape its relationship with U.S.A. and to strengthen the sphere of influence in the western hemisphere. It goes without saying that developing mutual relationship with Latin American countries of paramount importance to Russia’s national interest. On the other hand, the unremitting rise in anti-American sentiment in Latin America along with left-wing regimes which came to power provided a golden opportunity for Russia to balance American influence. Quite a few Latin American countries welcomed Russia’s return such as Venezuela, Cuba, and Mexico as well. A further and possibly more compelling point is that geopolitically speaking, Latin America is of much strategic interest to Russia. Therefore, Russia must reinforce political and economic interaction with Latin American countries.
|Appears in Collections:||[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文|
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