蘇聯解體提供吉爾吉斯走向民主舞台的契機，同時也為領導人帶來改革的挑戰。阿斯卡爾‧阿卡耶夫(Askar Akayev)期望將吉爾吉斯建立成「中亞的瑞士」，他執政後積極堆動政治與經濟改革，但其民主化帶有集權的痕跡，政府貪污腐敗，人民生活貧困；2005年受顏色革命浪潮之影響，吉國發生「鬱金香革命」，阿卡耶夫政治的生涯也隨之結束。2010年，適逢鬱金香革命滿五年之際，吉爾吉斯政權又再次更迭，庫爾曼別克‧巴基耶夫(Kurmanbek Bakiyev)流亡海外，讓這個中亞小國又再度成為國際焦點。 蘇聯的統治對吉爾吉斯之政治、經濟或是社會各方面皆留下深刻的影響。獨立後的吉爾吉斯進入轉型過渡時期，開始民主化的政治制度、激烈的經濟改革與大規模私有化；這一切看似民主自由的改革政策，經過了近二十年的改革，似乎一再將吉爾吉斯拉回過去，政治權力更為集中、經濟停滯不前。2005年「鬱金香革命」 (Tulip Revolution)後，2010年又再次爆發政權轉移事件，在如此短暫時間之內，何以吉爾吉斯政局頻繁變動不斷，其因值得探究。 筆者將從歷史發展過程著手，觀察吉爾吉斯前後任總統在政治與經濟上的改革措施，討論體制變化與政策改革之利弊；並分析探究二次政權更替之因素與影響，最後將總結其改革之成效。本研究結果指出，無論是民族衝突、政治競逐、外力對政治的干預或是人民的反強權、反貪腐運動，國家內部動盪的最終根本是源自於經濟疲弱不振，人民生活改善之成效不彰；這也說明了吉國的改革措施並未產生極大正面效益。近來新政府與議會已成立，他們是否能帶領吉爾吉斯突破其政治與經濟困境格外引人注目。 The collapse of the USSR provided Kyrgyzstan with the opportunity to move towards democracy. Meanwhile, it also brought the challenges of political and economic reforms. Askar Akayev expected to build Kyrgyzstan as Switzerland of the Central Asia through its reconstruction and lead Kyrgyzstan transform into a market orientated democracy. Akayev quickly conducted the important large political and economic reforms after the independence of his country.
Being a newly independent country, Kyrgyzstan proceeded to democratic politics, economic reforms policies and large-scale privatization. Affected by the wave of democratization, color revolution also occurred in Kyrgyzstan. Kurmanbek Bakiyev at this time got the chance to start his political career after Tulip revolution. However, after nearly two decades of reform, Kyrgyzstan seems to go backward to the past. The political power became more centralized and economic stagnation became more obvious. The uprising in 2010 once again caught the global attention. Why did this small country confront with two political power shifts in a such short time? Obviously, Bakiyev repeated the mistakes that were done by Akayev.
The thesis aims at examining the pros and the cons of the reforms in Kyrgyzstan and to explore the factors which gave rise to power shift. Furthermore, it also explains why the reforms in Kyrgyzstan did not bring positive results and significant benefits. The research leads to the conclusion that despite ethnic conflicts, political interference, anti-power activities, anti-corruption campaigns; the internal instability within the country was result of the slack in the economy.