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    Title: 中國生產者服務業與製造業的互動關聯研究
    Other Titles: A study on the industrial chains between manufacturing and producer services in China
    Authors: 張書誠;Chang, Shu-Chen
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士班
    郭建中
    Keywords: 生產者服務業;製造業;產業升級;附加價值;Producer Services;Manufacturing;Industrial Upgrading;value added
    Date: 2011
    Issue Date: 2011-12-28 17:01:40 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在中國的「十一五規劃」以及「十二五規劃」之中,生產者服務業與製造業皆為產業發展的重點,而兩業的互動關聯研究更是產業研究中眾所注目的焦點。原因在於生產者服務業在許多國家的發展經驗當中可以證實,無論是製造業、農業或甚至是服務業本身,在發展的過程中,往往必須要透過生產者服務業的協助來達到提高生產效率、附加價值、產業競爭力與降低交易成本以達到產業升級的目標。

    當前中國的製造業普遍存在著研發經費投入不足、高級專業人才匱乏的問題,且在國際產業鏈之中,中國的製造業都位處於勞動密集型的生產或是裝配活動階段,即使是技術或是資本密集型的產品,中國所從事的仍然為加工裝配的工序階段。縱使製造業工業製成品占中國出口總額於2008年時已高達94.55%,但也因為中國的製造業所生產之產品附加價值不高,主要也是挾著低成本優勢席捲出口市場,而使中國在出口貿易上屢遭抵制,如:關稅壁壘、反傾銷調查等。此外,中國的土地與人口紅利已不復以往來得有優勢,加上高速擴張所帶來的高度資源消耗與環境汙染等種種原因,中國的製造業之產業結構升級的問題將更加顯得刻不容緩。

    但是中國的生產者服務業與製造業的互動是否真的如同國際經驗與理論來得契合呢?經由文獻的整理歸納、投入產出分析與迴歸分析後發現事實並非如此,目前中國的製造業在利用生產者服務上,仍以傳統的生產者服務為主,亦即在新興(生產者)服務業的利用上仍然不足。這對於希望透過提升中國的製造業之自主研發能力來提升產品附加價值的期望並不相符,所以中國的兩業互動關聯雖然符合互動論,但是中國的兩業互動仍然屬於低階的初級階段。
    Among China’s “Eleventh Five-Year Plan” and the “Twelfth Five-Year Plan,” both producer services and manufacturing are the main industries. Especially the interaction of them is the Spotlight of industrial research. It can be proved by experiences of producer services industry in many countries. In the development process, no matter manufacturing, agriculture or even the service industry, they have to improve efficiency of production, values added, industrial competitiveness, and reduce the production cost in order to achieve the industrial upgrading goal.

    There are two common problems of manufacturing in China. One is their R&D funding shortage, and another is lack of senior professionals. Also, in the international industrial chain, China''s manufacturing industry is all about labor-intensive activities. Even though in the process of produced technical products, China’s manufacturing is only about assembly activities. Although manufacturing''s manufactured goods seize up to 94.55% of total exports of China up in 2008, China still is often boycotted in trade barrier because of low-cost advantage of manufactures export. In addition, land and labor cost of China are no longer dominant as it used to be. Moreover, industrial upgrading must be the first priority to focus on because the affects caused by high resources consumption and environmental pollutions.

    However, is the interaction between producer services and manufacturing in China really similar to the theory or experiences in developed countries? By summarizing the literature, the input-output analysis, and the regression analysis, we found that is not the case. China’s manufacturing in the demand for services is still mainly based on traditional production services to meet demand. Which means, the aims to enhance value by enhancing China''s manufacturing industry R&D capabilities does not match expectations. Therefore, even China''s producer services and manufacturing industry are tally with the interaction theory, the two industries in China are still in a low level of interaction stage.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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