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    Title: 從中共不對稱的社會制度論其因果關係 : 以中國大陸農民工為例
    Other Titles: Discussing the causation relations of asymmetric social system of asymmetric in China : in the case of migrant workers in China
    Authors: 彭國省;Peng, Kuo-Sheng
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    潘錫堂;Pan, Xi-Tang
    Keywords: 不對稱制度;戶籍制度;流動人口;二元結構;工業化;農民工;邊緣化;歧視;Asymmetric system;Household registration system;Floating population;Dual structure;Industrialization;Migrant workers;Marginalized;discrimination
    Date: 2011
    Issue Date: 2011-12-28 17:01:26 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 中國大陸在改革初期,基本上是一個資源短缺,且人口膨脹而閒置的農業國家,在追求工業化的發展過程,數以千萬的農民成為中國大陸的流動人口,他們多半來自於中西部窮困的農村,從農村人口流動到城市的過程中,除了可以將剩餘的勞力轉移,投入生產的行列,同時農民可以藉由勞動的工資,累積儲蓄或改善內地貧窮家人的生活環境,在大規模人口的遷移下,相對加速中國大陸的都市化,卻給中國大陸帶來另一層次的問題。由於中國大陸的經濟發展,在透過農村過剩的勞動人口轉移進城,從事政府規劃下的各項建設工程,在二元結構尚未根本突破的時代背景下,農民工在經濟發展中扮演著極為重要的角色,為中國大陸工業建設增添一股強大的競爭力。
      中國大陸的戶籍制度實質上是一種制度的歧視,規定某一羣體的政治、經濟或文化地位高於另一群體,從而使後者遭受一些不公平的待遇,權益受到損害。農民在這種歧視性制度的安排下,成為邊緣化和底層化城鄉二元結構和城鄉發展的巨大差距,是中國大陸非均衡發展的一個長期的和突出的問題。戶籍制度造成了社會等級的存在,影響社會的公正性,同時與就業、教育、醫療、住房、福利、社會保障乃至於部分商品供應等,這一系列在待遇方面有著制度化的依存關係,造成現今中國大陸不對等的人性歧視。
      社會的混亂是中共政權的重要威脅,而有效的控制人口的流動情形,減緩訊息的傳遞,有助於中共政權的穩固,這才是問題的所在,因此中共對於農民工的問題,只能被動式的頭痛醫頭、脚痛醫脚,在不變更制度的範圍內進行農民工基本權益的維護與事務性的改革。現今中共若冒然廢除戶籍制度,將直接對中共政權產生決定性的影響,中共當局不會輕易嘗試去改變現狀,因為中共正處於社會主義初級階段,一切以經濟發展為目標,是不容輕易逾越,這個問題可能將延續到所謂社會主義上層建設的完善,既是達到開發中國家的水準,同時全面實施小康的階段,而民主制度更趨健全時,才有可能完全實現。
    In the early stages of reform, China is basically an idle agricultural country due to the shortage of resources and population expansion. During the development process of industrialization, millions of peasants become the floating population in China. Most of them come from impoverished poor rural areas in the Midwest. In the from process of moving from rural to urban areas,not only the surplus labor could be transfered into the groups of production,meanwhile the peasants could accumulate savings or improve their inland Family''s poor living environment through their wages. However, the large-scale migration of population has accelerated the speed of urbanization in China, which brought the issue to another level. Due to the economic development in China and through the transfer of surplus rural labor force into the city by going for various construction projects planned by government, migrant workers play an extremely important role in economic development is and also increase a powerful competitiveness for mainland China.
    China''s household registration system is essentially a system of discrimination by claiming the political, economic or cultural status of a group is superior to another one, so that the latter one is subjected to some unfair treatments and the rights of the group members are being infringed. China takes much attention to racial harmony far more then to peasants. Peasants and farmers'' rights and social stratification have been categorized to the sub-culture class in this discriminatory system of arrangement. The structure of society has become marginalized and the urban-rural dual structure. A huge gap between urban and rural development has become a long-term and obvious issue in this unbalanced development in China. Household registration system resulted in the existence of social hierarchy and affected social fairness, employment, education, health, housing, welfare, social security and even some of the goods supply, etc. All of these institutionalized treatments results in an unequal discrimination in Today''s China.
    Social chaos is a major threat to the communist regime, and how to control the movement of population t effectively and to slow down the transmission of information are the key points to stabilize the Chinese Communist regime. Therefore CPC could only take passive stopgap measures for the problems of migrant workers and maintain the basic rights of migrant workers and transactional reforms under the premise of not to change the current system. If the CPC hastily repeals the current household registration system, it would result in a directly decisive impact on the Chinese Communist regime. That is why the Chinese authorities will not try to change the current status since the CPC is now in the primary stage of socialism and the economic development is the mail goals which can not be easily abandoned. Thus, the household registration system has not been discussed in this year''s two meetings. The problem could be possible fully solved until the construction levels meet the standards of developing countries, while the democratic system is more complete.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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