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    Title: "Non-self," "alms-giving," and "holistic worldview" in relation to ecology : a study of the Hua-Yen sutra
    Other Titles: 「無我」、「佈施」及「整全觀」與生態之關聯 : 以《華嚴經》為範本
    無我佈施及整全觀與生態之關聯 : 以華嚴經為範本
    Authors: 黃文忠;Huang, Wen-Chung
    Contributors: 淡江大學英文學系博士班
    楊銘塗;Yang, Ming-Tu
    Keywords: 無我;五戒;四聖諦;八正道;精神生態學;深層生態學;自我實現;六波羅密;十波羅密;大乘菩薩道;整全式世界觀;善財童子;善財五十三參;十地;華嚴;Non-self;Five precepts;Four Noble Truths;Noble Eightfold Path;spiritual ecology;Deep Ecology;Self-realization;Six paramitas;Ten paramitas;Mahayana Bodhisattva Path;Holistic worldview;Sudhana;The Pilgrimage of Sudhana;Ten Stags;Hua-yen
    Date: 2011
    Issue Date: 2011-12-28 16:57:25 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 若要徹底地來應對並解決生態環境議題,需要回歸到個人「整全式」的世界觀去轉換,以替代狹隘且機械化的人中心主義,其中所要牽連帶動的改變,絕非僅靠著社會運動或律法的規範即可達成。精神生態學的研究範疇與目的,主要立論於人類精神層面的轉化與昇華,來處理生態永續發展的議題。本論文將聚焦在佛教基本教義—「無我」、「佈施」及「整全觀」—來探討生態議題,期望能替生態永續的目標找出一條活路。本論文研究的主軸將定位在以整全觀聞名的大乘佛教經典《華嚴經》。如果要徹底解決環境問題,則必須從人心的改造與昇華著手。在這個方面,《華嚴經》絕對能提供現代人必要的幫助。
    第一章著重於探討「無我論」與個人生態意識之探討。我從「無我論」推證至「空性」、「互為存在」以及簡樸的心靈及生活型態。從40卷《華嚴經》當中,我們清楚地了解到佛陀對於環境的重視,並且也同時了解到人心墮落所導至的「貪」、「瞋」、「癡」三毒才是造成今日環境破壞的主因。藉由「無我論」的認知及基本戒律的修持,世人可望看到這世界萬象當中「物物相關聯」的本質。世人將可以更謙遜的眼光來看待這世界,會開使學習過著「外表簡樸、內在豐富」的生態人的生活。
    第二章將探討「佈施」與大乘佛教「菩薩道」。「佈施」為「六波羅密」之首,也是一般人在日常生活中隨時隨地可執行的利人善行。「六波羅密」或「十波羅密」為大乘菩薩修鍊過程中的必修課程,其主要目的在於幫助世人消除「我執」,並且展開生態菩薩「上求菩提、下化眾生」的濟世生涯。
    第三章將著眼於《華嚴經》當中的「整全觀」之探討。我將分析《華嚴經》中「七處九會」的佛教宇宙觀及其與「整全觀」的關聯性。《華嚴經》的特色在於它在最後的章節安排了善財童子53參,為整部《華嚴經》作出摘要式的總結,如能真心誠意地發起菩提心並確實執行利他善行,人人皆可為善財、可入菩薩道、可為人間的生態環境作出貢獻。
    Modern ecological problems result mainly from narrow-minded and mechanistic anthropocentrism. The task of cutting the Gordian knot of ecological issues must involve transformations towards the personally holistic level and be motivated by more than mere social movements and political and legislative decisions. Spiritual ecology aims for the transformation and sublimation of human spirituality, which is urgently needed in order to deal effectively with ecological issues. This dissertation aims to explore possible solutions to environmental problems from the angles of basic Buddhist teachings—“Non-self,” “Alms-giving,” and “Holistic worldview.” Hua-yen Sutra, the primary text of this dissertation, is a sutra famous for its holistic worldview. It surely can contribute a lot to the task of transforming and sublimating human spirituality.
    The first chapter focuses on the discussion of the inter-relatedness of “non-self” and the eco-system of human consciousness. From the basic teaching of “non-self,” I derive such notions as “emptiness,” “emptiness of selfhood,” “inter-being,” and a mindset and life-style of simplicity. Through the reading of the Hua-yen Sutra, we come to know the emphasis the Buddha put on the environment and also the root causes of modern environmental problems—“greed,” “aversion,” and “ignorance”-that is, the “three poisons,” which are the inevitable results of the degeneration of human morality. It is my firm belief that, through the intuitive understanding of “non-self” and the actual practice of precepts, people are able to see deep into the very nature of mundane phenomena, that is, the “interconnectedness of everything.” People will be humbler in treating every creature and occurrence in this mundane world and will start learning to live an eco-friendly life that is “outwardly simple but inwardly rich.”
    The second chapter is devoted to the topic of “alms-giving” and its relation to the Mahayana “Bodhisattva Path.” As the head of the “Six Paramitas,” “alms-giving” can be practiced by every person in daily life in an altruistic way. “Six Paramitas” or “Ten Paramitas” is a required course for any Mahayana bodhisattva. They help us eliminate the tendency of ego-clinging and start the life career of ecological persons, which is based on the altruistic notion of “striving upward for enlightenment and going downward for liberation of sentient beings.”
    The third chapter is devoted to the exploration of the “holistic worldview” in the Hua-yen Sutra. I will elaborate on the “nine conferences taking place in seven places” and their relations to a holistic worldview. The uniqueness of the Hua-yen Sutra lies in the pilgrimage of Sudhana, in which Sudhana pays 53 visits to spiritual teachers. This summarizes the previous books of the Sutra. Everyone of us can be Sudhana, carrying out altruistic deeds and contributing to the improvement of the eco-system.
    Appears in Collections:[英文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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