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|Title: ||"Non-self," "alms-giving," and "holistic worldview" in relation to ecology : a study of the Hua-Yen sutra|
|Other Titles: ||「無我」、「佈施」及「整全觀」與生態之關聯 : 以《華嚴經》為範本|
無我佈施及整全觀與生態之關聯 : 以華嚴經為範本
|Authors: ||黃文忠;Huang, Wen-Chung|
|Keywords: ||無我;五戒;四聖諦;八正道;精神生態學;深層生態學;自我實現;六波羅密;十波羅密;大乘菩薩道;整全式世界觀;善財童子;善財五十三參;十地;華嚴;Non-self;Five precepts;Four Noble Truths;Noble Eightfold Path;spiritual ecology;Deep Ecology;Self-realization;Six paramitas;Ten paramitas;Mahayana Bodhisattva Path;Holistic worldview;Sudhana;The Pilgrimage of Sudhana;Ten Stags;Hua-yen|
|Issue Date: ||2011-12-28 16:57:25 (UTC+8)|
Modern ecological problems result mainly from narrow-minded and mechanistic anthropocentrism. The task of cutting the Gordian knot of ecological issues must involve transformations towards the personally holistic level and be motivated by more than mere social movements and political and legislative decisions. Spiritual ecology aims for the transformation and sublimation of human spirituality, which is urgently needed in order to deal effectively with ecological issues. This dissertation aims to explore possible solutions to environmental problems from the angles of basic Buddhist teachings—“Non-self,” “Alms-giving,” and “Holistic worldview.” Hua-yen Sutra, the primary text of this dissertation, is a sutra famous for its holistic worldview. It surely can contribute a lot to the task of transforming and sublimating human spirituality.
The first chapter focuses on the discussion of the inter-relatedness of “non-self” and the eco-system of human consciousness. From the basic teaching of “non-self,” I derive such notions as “emptiness,” “emptiness of selfhood,” “inter-being,” and a mindset and life-style of simplicity. Through the reading of the Hua-yen Sutra, we come to know the emphasis the Buddha put on the environment and also the root causes of modern environmental problems—“greed,” “aversion,” and “ignorance”-that is, the “three poisons,” which are the inevitable results of the degeneration of human morality. It is my firm belief that, through the intuitive understanding of “non-self” and the actual practice of precepts, people are able to see deep into the very nature of mundane phenomena, that is, the “interconnectedness of everything.” People will be humbler in treating every creature and occurrence in this mundane world and will start learning to live an eco-friendly life that is “outwardly simple but inwardly rich.”
The second chapter is devoted to the topic of “alms-giving” and its relation to the Mahayana “Bodhisattva Path.” As the head of the “Six Paramitas,” “alms-giving” can be practiced by every person in daily life in an altruistic way. “Six Paramitas” or “Ten Paramitas” is a required course for any Mahayana bodhisattva. They help us eliminate the tendency of ego-clinging and start the life career of ecological persons, which is based on the altruistic notion of “striving upward for enlightenment and going downward for liberation of sentient beings.”
The third chapter is devoted to the exploration of the “holistic worldview” in the Hua-yen Sutra. I will elaborate on the “nine conferences taking place in seven places” and their relations to a holistic worldview. The uniqueness of the Hua-yen Sutra lies in the pilgrimage of Sudhana, in which Sudhana pays 53 visits to spiritual teachers. This summarizes the previous books of the Sutra. Everyone of us can be Sudhana, carrying out altruistic deeds and contributing to the improvement of the eco-system.
|Appears in Collections:||[Graduate Institute & Department of English] Thesis|
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