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    Title: Liberalism in the American political tradition : philosophical foundations and historical developments
    Other Titles: 自由主義與美國政治傳統
    Authors: 沈圃稼;Shen, Daniel J. C.
    Contributors: 淡江大學美洲研究所博士班
    崔馬吉;Trimarchi, Anthony G.
    Keywords: 古典自由主義;現代自由主義;自由;消極自由;積極自由;平等;機會平等;結果平等;法律平等;私有財產權;自由市場體制;政府;保護者類型政府;提供者類型政府;公共利益;競爭;交易程序;社會契約;classical liberalism;modern liberalism;liberty;negative liberty;positive liberty;Equality;equality of opportunity;equality of outcome;equality before the law;private property rights;free market system;government;protector-type government;provider-type government;common good;competition;process of exchange;social contract
    Date: 2011
    Issue Date: 2011-12-28 16:23:08 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 美國自由主義之本質乃是紮根於十八世紀啟蒙運動之政治思想體系,其於傳統上信奉個人自由、機會平等、自由市場經濟、擴張定義的財產權、自由民主之資本主義以及有限政府。唯自十九世紀末起,在經歷了一重新定義過程之後,傳統之美國自由主義漸漸為其「現代」版本所取代。自二十世紀三〇年代之羅斯福新政時期起,此一現代版本之美國自由主義,便開始強調藉由政府權威性手段,以達到更公平之經濟分配和社會福利措施。此後,美國即踏上了與個人自由漸行漸遠,並向中央集權論觀念傾斜之路。除此之外,此一最初矢志保護個人自由,以作為唯一政府目的之政治思想,被改造成視政府為所謂應得權利和其他公共服務之「供應者」。因此,此一經重新定義之現代自由主義在美國政治傳統中,明顯地導致了個人自由的侵蝕,向社會主義輕微靠攏,無可避免的政府機關破產,遭人非議的福利措施,並因其放棄了其傳統的哲學基礎,而遭致眾多批評。
    The essence of liberalism in the United States of America, which took root in the 18th century Enlightenment political ideologies and traditionally espoused individual liberty, equality of opportunity, a free market economy, an expansive definition of property rights, liberal democratic capitalism, and limited government, has undergone a redefining process since the late nineteenth century and been replaced by a "modern" version, which emphasizes more equitable economic distribution by means of authoritative measures and social welfare since the 1930''s New Deal era. Thereafter, America embarked upon a journey sliding away from individual liberty and toward the embrace of various conceptions of statism. Moreover, a political ideology that originally claimed protection of individual liberty as the sole purpose of government, was transformed into one that perceives government as a provider of so-called entitlement rights and other services. Consequently, this redefined liberalism in the American political tradition has brought about an indisputable erosion of various individual liberties, subtle approximation to socialism, intransigent bankruptcy, disputed welfare programs, and become an obloquy to many as it surrendered its traditional philosophical foundations.
    Appears in Collections:[Graduate Institute of the Americas] Thesis

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