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    题名: The evolution of Jamestown : changes in American political and social images
    其它题名: 詹姆士鎮之演進 : 美國政治與社會印象之變遷
    作者: 簡潔;Chieh-Chien
    贡献者: 淡江大學美洲研究所碩士班
    黃介正;Huang, Chieh-Cheug
    关键词: 詹姆士鎮;區域主義;紀念節;多元文化論;Jamestown;Regionalism;Commemorate;multiculturalism
    日期: 2011
    上传时间: 2011-12-28 16:22:36 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 西元1607年,英國人在維吉尼亞州建立了北美洲第一個永久的定居點,為了紀念授予他們殖民特許權的英國國王詹姆斯一世,他們將這個殖民地命名為詹姆士鎮。詹姆士鎮自1807年5月13日起每50年舉辦一次盛大的慶祝活動紀念詹姆士鎮的成立,而每一次的慶典皆反映出詹姆士鎮當時的社會與政治印象。19世紀時美國區域主義盛行,各州基於鞏固自州地位而發展出一套屬於各州獨特文化的慶典以顯示自州的獨特性。其中又以北方麻薩諸塞州的普利茅斯鎮與南方的維吉尼亞州的詹姆士鎮競爭尤為激烈,因麻州與維州各自堅稱自州才是美國文化真正的發源地,兩州的愛國主義者於是利用各州特有的紀念節舉行各式各樣的活動藉此宣示自州在美國歷史地位的重要性,這樣競爭又仇視的關係更激化了本來已尖銳對立的南北爭執。

    而在20世紀初美國總統西奧多‧羅斯福則利用詹姆士鎮成立300周年的慶祝活動試圖達成他向世界各國展現美國海軍實力的目標,詹姆士鎮也因此瀰漫革命初期的氛圍。到了90年代中期,詹姆市鎮成立350年的慶祝主題圍繞著保存殖民時期的歷史文獻與重建歷史古蹟,所有的焦點皆集中在詹姆士鎮的歷史文化層面上,也因此提供大眾有機會認識這「文明的搖籃」,但當時維吉尼亞州仍實行種族隔離政策,詹姆斯鎮的慶祝僅限白人參與,少數族群如非裔美國人和維吉尼亞的原住民則被排除再外。

    到了21世紀,詹姆斯鎮成立400年紀念活動因國際媒體爭相報導而引起全世界的高度關注,詹姆士鎮想要傳達的重要訊息也透過媒體及網路傳播至全球,而由歐裔,非裔美國人和維吉尼亞的原住民的3種文化更是首次構成活動主題的重要元素。本論文將探討詹姆士鎮在4個不同時期間的獨特印象。這4個不同時期的詹姆士鎮印象分布在第2章和第3章,而第1章和第6張為緒論和結論。第2章將介紹詹姆士鎮在19世紀與20世紀初之印象,包含區域主義與軍國主義對詹姆士鎮之影響。第3章將介紹20世紀中期之後詹姆士鎮之印象,包括詹姆士鎮對現今美國社會歷久不衰的影響。
    Every 50 years since 1807, there has been special recognition of the importance of Jamestown, with commemorations involved extensively elaborated sequences of events, and renewed a sense of historical continuity. From 1807 to 2007 there were five major Jamestown anniversary celebrations: the Grand National Jubilee of 1807, Jamestown''s 250th anniversary, the Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition, the 350th Anniversary of Jamestown and the 400th Anniversary of Jamestown. Patriotic ritual and history were abundant at the Jamestown commemorative observances. These brief descriptions of each highlight the sociopolitical context of their celebration.

    In 19th century, the competition between New England and Virginia provided a backdrop for Jamestown to hold anniversary celebration. Virginian patriots hold a “Grand National Jubilee” to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the first arrival at Jamestown as a defensive action to respond New England’s “Pilgrim Day” which commemorated the first settlement of the Plymouth Colony. The antagonistic purpose between North and South became an inescapable reality in nation.

    In the early 20th century, the Tercentennial Exposition was proclaimed by President Theodore Roosevelt and held at Sewell’s Point in Norfolk by the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities in 1907. After Spanish-American war, in an effort to promote images as a mighty military power to the world, the American government seized the opportunities to display naval prowess in celebration. The demonstration of United States’ military power and construction of particular group’s identities were intertwined at this exposition.

    After half a century, the focus was Jamestown itself and marked by a concerted effort to investigate, preserve, and reconstruct various aspects of the colony''s history this time.The historical experiences of Virginia Indians and African Americans received few attention or representation in the face of the American government limited their participation.Moreover, American had been gone through War World II, Korean War and Cold War in the middle of 20th century. The historical interpretation of the 350th anniversary of Jamestown was influenced by these events.

    Moving into 21st century, through the extensive international and national media reporting, significant commemoration messages that promoters attempted to convey could reach all over the world. Tellingly, the 400th anniversary was the first time the organizers deemed African Americans and Virginia Indian tribes as organizational partners to integrate their historical perspectives into the commemoration. They were seeking ways to construct and reconstruct their identities, and these performances of identity construction twin with the exposition. This work will analyze how these major Jamestown commemorations reflected the character of its time and the main functions of Jamestown commemorations in its era.
    显示于类别:[美洲研究所] 學位論文

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