Erbium-doped silicon nanowires have been grown via a vapor transport and condensation method with ErCl3∙6H2O powder as part of the source in one step. The Er-doped silicon nanowires exhibit the room temperature photoluminescence at a wavelength of 1.54 μm, ideal for optical communication. From I-V measurements, the resistivity of 4.2 at. % Er-doped Si nanowires was determined to be 1.5×10−2 Ω cm. The Er-doped silicon nanowires were found to possess excellent field emission properties with a field enhancement factor as high as 1260. The rich variety of enhanced physical properties exhibited by the Er-doped silicon nanowires points to versatile applications for advanced devices.