Finite difference (FD) solutions for static and dynamic Winkler’s foundation models are applicable in modeling pile responses. In this paper, relevant solutions on liquefaction induced lateral spreading are presented. Direct and indirect earth-pressure approximations and implementations are introduced. Pile foundation failures of 1995 Kobe earthquake were examined using these models. It was found that both the static and dynamic analyses could provide rational pile displacements in agreement with field observations. The largest pile displacements were found at the pile head from static modeling and the dynamic one using indirect earth pressures. For dynamic solutions with direct earth pressure approximations, maximum pile displacements were found at pile tip. These solutions seem reasonable to model different types of lateral spreading. The mechanism of ground motion, strongly affected by geologic and geographic site conditions as well as the soil-foundation-structure interactions, needs to be carefully verified before applying these solutions.
Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics IV, .vol.2, pp.835-844