隨著台塑之進入市場及油品全面開放進口，油品產業已產生結構性的改變，身為競爭法主管機關的公平會應以何種態度因應？再者，近來國際原油價格高漲造成圍內各項油品價格的上漲，公平會又該如何強化我國油品供應市場競爭機制？此外，針對在油品輸送銷售的過程中，現有的垂直行銷管道，政府宜採行何種競爭政策，以確保市場競爭？本文分別以經濟與法律分析探討上述課題，剖析主管機關的因應措施，提供幾點具體參考建議。首先，基於對目的事業主管機關職權之尊，公平會不宜介入囤積油品及哄抬油價之管制;其次，公平會針對高油價現象，適用公平法第十條第二款榨取性濫用之管制，應審慎為之;再者，有關寡占市場同步調漲油價之管制，公平會應建立寡占市場之價格監督機制，俾為聯合行為之補充規範：此外，對於油品製造與零售業務，應分別採取短期與長期措施，以改善油品市場之產業結構。 The structural change that has taken place in Taiwan’s petroleum market has led to an increase in market competition ever since the government deregulated restrictions on the importation of petroleum and allowed Formosa Petrochemical Co. to enter the market. As a competition authority, what can the Fair Trade Commission (FTC) do to deal with these situations? Moreover, local petroleum prices have been rising due to the soaring international oil prices. Therefore, what can the FTC do to sustain the market competition in the gasoline market? In addition, as regards the channels for marketing the gasoline, what kind of competition policy should the government adopt to sustain the market competition? This paper tries to use both economic and legal analysis to explore these topics in Taiwan's petroleum market. The concrete suggestions that arise out of this project inc1ude the fol1owing: (1) With all due respect to the authority over the regulative body, it is not appropriate for the TFTC to deal with the case where oil companies use their excess inventory to raise gasoline prices. (2) The TFTC should carefully identify the exploitative abuse stipulated in Section 2 of Article 10. (3) The oil companies should report any price changes to the TFTC. (4) We recommend that the government execute both long-term and short-term implementations to segregate the gasoline refineries and distribution channels of the Chinese Petroleum Corporation.