This paper aims to identify the effects of innovation on employment and labor composition in Taiwan. Using a new and detailed firm-level data set, the empirical results determine that innovations, measured by R&D investments or patent counts, have a positive impact on employment. Both of the estimated employment effects of product and process innovations are overall significantly positive. Although the effects of process innovations differ between high and low R&D-intensive industries, the process innovation tends to expand the firms’ output and then increase employment for high R&D-intensive industries. However, it frequently results in laborsavings in terms of production work and reduces jobs in low R&D-intensive industries. Moreover, technological innovations are found to be non-neutral, leading to a shift in labor composition in favor of skilled and more educated workers.