The wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a network comprising the huge number of sensor nodes, allow users to monitor a remote environment accurately by combining the data intelligently from the individual nodes. These networks require robust wireless communication protocols that are energy efficient and provide low latency. In this paper, we present a Hierarchical Multiple-Choice Routing Path Protocol (HMRP), a routing protocol for collecting data over multi-path, energy-balancing, and data aggregation to achieve good performance in terms of system lifetime and data delivery ratio. The design of the protocol aims to satisfy the requirements of sensor networks that every sensor transmits sensed data to the sink spontaneously. The sink constructs hierarchical tree by broadcasting its hop value to find the child nodes. Other nodes discover the child nodes in turn by the same way. The HMRP uses Candidates Information Table to avoid flooding and periodic updating of routing information. Moreover, the tree will automatically reconfigure according to nodes failure or adding the new nodes. The simulation results show that HMRP can increase the system lifetime by comparing with other general- purpose multi-hop clustering or tree-based approaches.
Journal of Information Science and Engineering 24(1), pp.277-291