The internal reflux effect on dialysis through the retentate phase of a cross-flow rectangular module is investigated. Theoretical analysis of mass transfer in cross-flow devices with or without recycling is analogous to heat transfer in cross-flow heat exchangers. In contrast to a device without reflux, considerable mass transfer is achievable if cross-flow dialyzers are operated with reflux, which provides an increase in fluid velocity, resulting in a reduction in mass-transfer resistance. It is concluded that reflux can enhance mass transfer, especially for large flow rate and feed-concentration operated under high reflux ratio.
Chemical Engineering Communications 198, pp.1366-1379