The Felder-Soloman Index of Learning Styles (ILS) has been a popular instrument for measuring learning styles of college students for the past two decades. Even though several researchers have translated the ILS into Chinese for their own studies, a Chinese version has not been standardized and evaluated, nor has anyone reported on its reliability and validity. Based on data collected from 2,748 students at a large private university in Taiwan, this study investigates the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the ILS. In addition, through factor analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis, problematic test items are identified for further modification. Results show that the reliability of each scale of the ILS has a pattern similar to that of previous studies. The study therefore investigates the identified problematic elements and discusses two key points: (1) the language and translation problems and (2) precision and design. In addition, results of the significant interaction effects of analysis of variance (ANOVA) for active/reflective and sensing/intuitive scales indicate the effect of college differences depends on the levels between genders. Moreover, in general, female students are significantly more intuitive and global and less visual than male students. Other detailed analysis of academic disciplines and gender onILS are also reported.